We present a photo-realistic training and evaluation simulator (Sim4CV) with extensive applications across various fields of computer vision. Built on top of the Unreal Engine, the simulator integrates full featured physics based cars, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and animated human actors in diverse urban and suburban 3D environments. We demonstrate the versatility of the simulator with two case studies: autonomous UAV-based tracking of moving objects and autonomous driving using supervised learning. The simulator fully integrates both several state-of-the-art tracking algorithms with a benchmark evaluation tool and a deep neural network (DNN) architecture for training vehicles to drive autonomously. It generates synthetic photo-realistic datasets with automatic ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets and provides extensive synthetic data variety through its ability to reconfigure synthetic worlds on the fly using an automatic world generation tool. The supplementary video can be viewed a https://youtu.be/SqAxzsQ7qUU
In this paper we present a differential approach to photo-polarimetric shape estimation. We propose several alternative differential constraints based on polarisation and photometric shading information and show how to express them in a unified partial differential system. Our method uses the image ratios technique to combine shading and polarisation information in order to directly reconstruct surface height, without first computing surface normal vectors. Moreover, we are able to remove the non-linearities so that the problem reduces to solving a linear differential problem. We also introduce a new method for estimating a polarisation image from multichannel data and, finally, we show it is possible to estimate the illumination directions in a two source setup, extending the method into an uncalibrated scenario. From a numerical point of view, we use a least-squares formulation of the discrete version of the problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to consider a unified differential approach to solve photo-polarimetric shape estimation directly for height. Numerical results on synthetic and real-world data confirm the effectiveness of our proposed method.
While wearable cameras are becoming increasingly popular, locating relevant information in large unstructured collections of egocentric images is still a tedious and time consuming processes. This paper addresses the problem of organizing egocentric photo streams acquired by a wearable camera into semantically meaningful segments. First, contextual and semantic information is extracted for each image by employing a Convolutional Neural Networks approach. Later, by integrating language processing, a vocabulary of concepts is defined in a semantic space. Finally, by exploiting the temporal coherence in photo streams, images which share contextual and semantic attributes are grouped together. The resulting temporal segmentation is particularly suited for further analysis, ranging from activity and event recognition to semantic indexing and summarization. Experiments over egocentric sets of nearly 17,000 images, show that the proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
Retouching can significantly elevate the visual appeal of photos, but many casual photographers lack the expertise to do this well. To address this problem, previous works have proposed automatic retouching systems based on supervised learning from paired training images acquired before and after manual editing. As it is difficult for users to acquire paired images that reflect their retouching preferences, we present in this paper a deep learning approach that is instead trained on unpaired data, namely a set of photographs that exhibits a retouching style the user likes, which is much easier to collect. Our system is formulated using deep convolutional neural networks that learn to apply different retouching operations on an input image. Network training with respect to various types of edits is enabled by modeling these retouching operations in a unified manner as resolution-independent differentiable filters. To apply the filters in a proper sequence and with suitable parameters, we employ a deep reinforcement learning approach that learns to make decisions on what action to take next, given the current state of the image. In contrast to many deep learning systems, ours provides users with an understandable solution in the form of conventional retouching edits, rather than just a "black-box" result. Through quantitative comparisons and user studies, we show that this technique generates retouching results consistent with the provided photo set.
We propose a real-time image matching framework, which is hybrid in the sense that it uses both hand-crafted features and deep features obtained from a well-tuned deep convolutional network. The matching problem, which we concentrate on, is specific to a certain application, that is, printing design to product photo matching. Printing designs are any kind of template image files, created using a design tool, thus are perfect image signals. However, photographs of a printed product suffer many unwanted effects, such as uncontrolled shooting angle, uncontrolled illumination, occlusions, printing deficiencies in color, camera noise, optic blur, et cetera. For this purpose, we create an image set that includes printing design and corresponding product photo pairs with collaboration of an actual printing facility. Using this image set, we benchmark various hand-crafted and deep features for matching performance and propose a framework in which deep learning is utilized with highest contribution, but without disabling real-time operation using an ordinary desktop computer.
Professional-grade software applications are powerful but complicated$-$expert users can achieve impressive results, but novices often struggle to complete even basic tasks. Photo editing is a prime example: after loading a photo, the user is confronted with an array of cryptic sliders like "clarity", "temp", and "highlights". An automatically generated suggestion could help, but there is no single "correct" edit for a given image$-$different experts may make very different aesthetic decisions when faced with the same image, and a single expert may make different choices depending on the intended use of the image (or on a whim). We therefore want a system that can propose multiple diverse, high-quality edits while also learning from and adapting to a user's aesthetic preferences. In this work, we develop a statistical model that meets these objectives. Our model builds on recent advances in neural network generative modeling and scalable inference, and uses hierarchical structure to learn editing patterns across many diverse users. Empirically, we find that our model outperforms other approaches on this challenging multimodal prediction task.
Manga is a world popular comic form originated in Japan, which typically employs black-and-white stroke lines and geometric exaggeration to describe humans' appearances, poses, and actions. In this paper, we propose MangaGAN, the first method based on Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) for unpaired photo-to-manga translation. Inspired by how experienced manga artists draw manga, MangaGAN generates the geometric features of manga face by a designed GAN model and delicately translates each facial region into the manga domain by a tailored multi-GANs architecture. For training MangaGAN, we construct a new dataset collected from a popular manga work, containing manga facial features, landmarks, bodies, and so on. Moreover, to produce high-quality manga faces, we further propose a structural smoothing loss to smooth stroke-lines and avoid noisy pixels, and a similarity preserving module to improve the similarity between domains of photo and manga. Extensive experiments show that MangaGAN can produce high-quality manga faces which preserve both the facial similarity and a popular manga style, and outperforms other related state-of-the-art methods.
Automatic organization of personal photos is a problem with many real world ap- plications, and can be divided into two main tasks: recognizing the event type of the photo collection, and selecting interesting images from the collection. In this paper, we attempt to simultaneously solve both tasks: album-wise event recognition and image- wise importance prediction. We collected an album dataset with both event type labels and image importance labels, refined from an existing CUFED dataset. We propose a hybrid system consisting of three parts: A siamese network-based event-specific image importance prediction, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that recognizes the event type, and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM)-based sequence level event recognizer. We propose an iterative updating procedure for event type and image importance score prediction. We experimentally verified that image importance score prediction and event type recognition can each help the performance of the other.
Face photo sketch synthesis has got some researchers' attention in recent years because of its potential applications in digital entertainment and law enforcement. Some patches based methods have been proposed to solve this problem. These methods usually focus more on how to get a sketch patch for a given photo patch than how to blend these generated patches. However, without appropriately blending method, some jagged parts and mottled points will appear in the entire face sketch. In order to get a smoother sketch, we propose a new method to reduce such jagged parts and mottled points. In our system, we resort to an existed method, which is Markov Random Fields (MRF), to train a crude face sketch firstly. Then this crude sketch face sketch will be divided into some larger patches again and retrained by Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). At last, we use Multiresolution Spline and a blend trick named full-coverage trick to blend these retrained patches. The experiment results show that compared with some previous method, we can get a smoother face sketch.
End-users, without knowledge in photography, desire to beautify their photos to have a similar color style as a well-retouched reference. However, recent works in image style transfer are overused. They usually synthesize undesirable results due to transferring exact colors to the wrong destination. It becomes even worse in sensitive cases such as portraits. In this work, we concentrate on learning low-level image transformation, especially color-shifting methods, rather than mixing contextual features, then present a novel scheme to train color style transfer with ground-truth. Furthermore, we propose a color style transfer named Deep Preset. It is designed to 1) generalize the features representing the color transformation from content with natural colors to retouched reference, then blend it into the contextual features of content, 2) predict hyper-parameters (settings or preset) of the applied low-level color transformation methods, 3) stylize content to have a similar color style as reference. We script Lightroom, a powerful tool in editing photos, to generate 600,000 training samples using 1,200 images from the Flick2K dataset and 500 user-generated presets with 69 settings. Experimental results show that our Deep Preset outperforms the previous works in color style transfer quantitatively and qualitatively.