Localizing anatomical landmarks are important tasks in medical image analysis. However, the landmarks to be localized often lack prominent visual features. Their locations are elusive and easily confused with the background, and thus precise localization highly depends on the context formed by their surrounding areas. In addition, the required precision is usually higher than segmentation and object detection tasks. Therefore, localization has its unique challenges different from segmentation or detection. In this paper, we propose a zoom-in attentive network (ZIAN) for anatomical landmark localization in ocular images. First, a coarse-to-fine, or "zoom-in" strategy is utilized to learn the contextualized features in different scales. Then, an attentive fusion module is adopted to aggregate multi-scale features, which consists of 1) a co-attention network with a multiple regions-of-interest (ROIs) scheme that learns complementary features from the multiple ROIs, 2) an attention-based fusion module which integrates the multi-ROIs features and non-ROI features. We evaluated ZIAN on two open challenge tasks, i.e., the fovea localization in fundus images and scleral spur localization in AS-OCT images. Experiments show that ZIAN achieves promising performances and outperforms state-of-the-art localization methods. The source code and trained models of ZIAN are available at https://github.com/leixiaofeng-astar/OMIA9-ZIAN.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) trained on one set of medical images often experience severe performance drop on unseen test images, due to various domain discrepancy between the training images (source domain) and the test images (target domain), which raises a domain adaptation issue. In clinical settings, it is difficult to collect enough annotated target domain data in a short period. Few-shot domain adaptation, i.e., adapting a trained model with a handful of annotations, is highly practical and useful in this case. In this paper, we propose a Polymorphic Transformer (Polyformer), which can be incorporated into any DNN backbones for few-shot domain adaptation. Specifically, after the polyformer layer is inserted into a model trained on the source domain, it extracts a set of prototype embeddings, which can be viewed as a "basis" of the source-domain features. On the target domain, the polyformer layer adapts by only updating a projection layer which controls the interactions between image features and the prototype embeddings. All other model weights (except BatchNorm parameters) are frozen during adaptation. Thus, the chance of overfitting the annotations is greatly reduced, and the model can perform robustly on the target domain after being trained on a few annotated images. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Polyformer on two medical segmentation tasks (i.e., optic disc/cup segmentation, and polyp segmentation). The source code of Polyformer is released at https://github.com/askerlee/segtran.