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"photo": models, code, and papers

Human Attention Estimation for Natural Images: An Automatic Gaze Refinement Approach

Jan 12, 2016
Jinsoo Choi, Tae-Hyun Oh, In So Kweon

Photo collections and its applications today attempt to reflect user interactions in various forms. Moreover, photo collections aim to capture the users' intention with minimum effort through applications capturing user intentions. Human interest regions in an image carry powerful information about the user's behavior and can be used in many photo applications. Research on human visual attention has been conducted in the form of gaze tracking and computational saliency models in the computer vision community, and has shown considerable progress. This paper presents an integration between implicit gaze estimation and computational saliency model to effectively estimate human attention regions in images on the fly. Furthermore, our method estimates human attention via implicit calibration and incremental model updating without any active participation from the user. We also present extensive analysis and possible applications for personal photo collections.


Plan2Scene: Converting Floorplans to 3D Scenes

Jun 09, 2021
Madhawa Vidanapathirana, Qirui Wu, Yasutaka Furukawa, Angel X. Chang, Manolis Savva

We address the task of converting a floorplan and a set of associated photos of a residence into a textured 3D mesh model, a task which we call Plan2Scene. Our system 1) lifts a floorplan image to a 3D mesh model; 2) synthesizes surface textures based on the input photos; and 3) infers textures for unobserved surfaces using a graph neural network architecture. To train and evaluate our system we create indoor surface texture datasets, and augment a dataset of floorplans and photos from prior work with rectified surface crops and additional annotations. Our approach handles the challenge of producing tileable textures for dominant surfaces such as floors, walls, and ceilings from a sparse set of unaligned photos that only partially cover the residence. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations show that our system produces realistic 3D interior models, outperforming baseline approaches on a suite of texture quality metrics and as measured by a holistic user study.

* This paper is accepted to CVPR 2021. For code, data and pretrained models, see 

Person Recognition in Personal Photo Collections

Sep 25, 2015
Seong Joon Oh, Rodrigo Benenson, Mario Fritz, Bernt Schiele

Recognising persons in everyday photos presents major challenges (occluded faces, different clothing, locations, etc.) for machine vision. We propose a convnet based person recognition system on which we provide an in-depth analysis of informativeness of different body cues, impact of training data, and the common failure modes of the system. In addition, we discuss the limitations of existing benchmarks and propose more challenging ones. Our method is simple and is built on open source and open data, yet it improves the state of the art results on a large dataset of social media photos (PIPA).

* Accepted to ICCV 2015, revised 

High-quality Panorama Stitching based on Asymmetric Bidirectional Optical Flow

Jun 19, 2020
Mingyuan Meng, Shaojun Liu

In this paper, we propose a panorama stitching algorithm based on asymmetric bidirectional optical flow. This algorithm expects multiple photos captured by fisheye lens cameras as input, and then, through the proposed algorithm, these photos can be merged into a high-quality 360-degree spherical panoramic image. For photos taken from a distant perspective, the parallax among them is relatively small, and the obtained panoramic image can be nearly seamless and undistorted. For photos taken from a close perspective or with a relatively large parallax, a seamless though partially distorted panoramic image can also be obtained. Besides, with the help of Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), this algorithm can complete the whole stitching process at a very fast speed: typically, it only takes less than 30s to obtain a panoramic image of 9000-by-4000 pixels, which means our panorama stitching algorithm is of high value in many real-time applications. Our code is available at

* 5 pages, 4 figures, accepted at the 5th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Applications (ICCIA 2020) 

Yelp Food Identification via Image Feature Extraction and Classification

Feb 11, 2019
Fanbo Sun, Zhixiang Gu, Bo Feng

Yelp has been one of the most popular local service search engine in US since 2004. It is powered by crowd-sourced text reviews and photo reviews. Restaurant customers and business owners upload photo images to Yelp, including reviewing or advertising either food, drinks, or inside and outside decorations. It is obviously not so effective that labels for food photos rely on human editors, which is an issue should be addressed by innovative machine learning approaches. In this paper, we present a simple but effective approach which can identify up to ten kinds of food via raw photos from the challenge dataset. We use 1) image pre-processing techniques, including filtering and image augmentation, 2) feature extraction via convolutional neural networks (CNN), and 3) three ways of classification algorithms. Then, we illustrate the classification accuracy by tuning parameters for augmentations, CNN, and classification. Our experimental results show this simple but effective approach to identify up to 10 food types from images.


Dixit: Interactive Visual Storytelling via Term Manipulation

Mar 11, 2019
Chao-Chun Hsu, Yu-Hua Chen, Zi-Yuan Chen, Hsin-Yu Lin, Ting-Hao 'Kenneth' Huang, Lun-Wei Ku

In this paper, we introduce Dixit, an interactive visual storytelling system that the user interacts with iteratively to compose a short story for a photo sequence. The user initiates the process by uploading a sequence of photos. Dixit first extracts text terms from each photo which describe the objects (e.g., boy, bike) or actions (e.g., sleep) in the photo, and then allows the user to add new terms or remove existing terms. Dixit then generates a short story based on these terms. Behind the scenes, Dixit uses an LSTM-based model trained on image caption data and FrameNet to distill terms from each image and utilizes a transformer decoder to compose a context-coherent story. Users change images or terms iteratively with Dixit to create the most ideal story. Dixit also allows users to manually edit and rate stories. The proposed procedure opens up possibilities for interpretable and controllable visual storytelling, allowing users to understand the story formation rationale and to intervene in the generation process.

* WWW'19 Demo, demo video: 

Lifespan Age Transformation Synthesis

Mar 21, 2020
Roy Or-El, Soumyadip Sengupta, Ohad Fried, Eli Shechtman, Ira Kemelmacher-Shlizerman

We address the problem of single photo age progression and regression-the prediction of how a person might look in the future, or how they looked in the past. Most existing aging methods are limited to changing the texture, overlooking transformations in head shape that occur during the human aging and growth process. This limits the applicability of previous methods to aging of adults to slightly older adults, and application of those methods to photos of children does not produce quality results. We propose a novel multi-domain image-to-image generative adversarial network architecture, whose learned latent space models a continuous bi-directional aging process. The network is trained on the FFHQ dataset, which we labeled for ages, gender, and semantic segmentation. Fixed age classes are used as anchors to approximate continuous age transformation. Our framework can predict a full head portrait for ages 0-70 from a single photo, modifying both texture and shape of the head. We demonstrate results on a wide variety of photos and datasets, and show significant improvement over the state of the art.


Cross-modal Subspace Learning for Fine-grained Sketch-based Image Retrieval

May 28, 2017
Peng Xu, Qiyue Yin, Yongye Huang, Yi-Zhe Song, Zhanyu Ma, Liang Wang, Tao Xiang, W. Bastiaan Kleijn, Jun Guo

Sketch-based image retrieval (SBIR) is challenging due to the inherent domain-gap between sketch and photo. Compared with pixel-perfect depictions of photos, sketches are iconic renderings of the real world with highly abstract. Therefore, matching sketch and photo directly using low-level visual clues are unsufficient, since a common low-level subspace that traverses semantically across the two modalities is non-trivial to establish. Most existing SBIR studies do not directly tackle this cross-modal problem. This naturally motivates us to explore the effectiveness of cross-modal retrieval methods in SBIR, which have been applied in the image-text matching successfully. In this paper, we introduce and compare a series of state-of-the-art cross-modal subspace learning methods and benchmark them on two recently released fine-grained SBIR datasets. Through thorough examination of the experimental results, we have demonstrated that the subspace learning can effectively model the sketch-photo domain-gap. In addition we draw a few key insights to drive future research.

* Accepted by Neurocomputing 

StegaStamp: Invisible Hyperlinks in Physical Photographs

Apr 10, 2019
Matthew Tancik, Ben Mildenhall, Ren Ng

Imagine a world in which each photo, printed or digitally displayed, hides arbitrary digital data that can be accessed through an internet-connected imaging system. Another way to think about this is physical photographs that have unique QR codes invisibly embedded within them. This paper presents an architecture, algorithms, and a prototype implementation addressing this vision. Our key technical contribution is StegaStamp, the first steganographic algorithm to enable robust encoding and decoding of arbitrary hyperlink bitstrings into photos in a manner that approaches perceptual invisibility. StegaStamp comprises a deep neural network that learns an encoding/decoding algorithm robust to image perturbations that approximate the space of distortions resulting from real printing and photography. Our system prototype demonstrates real-time decoding of hyperlinks for photos from in-the-wild video subject to real-world variation in print quality, lighting, shadows, perspective, occlusion and viewing distance. Our prototype system robustly retrieves 56 bit hyperlinks after error correction -- sufficient to embed a unique code within every photo on the internet.

* Project page: