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"photo style transfer": models, code, and papers

Bridging Unpaired Facial Photos And Sketches By Line-drawings

Feb 25, 2021
Meimei Shang, Fei Gao, Xiang Li, Jingjie Zhu, Lingna Dai

In this paper, we propose a novel method to learn face sketch synthesis models by using unpaired data. Our main idea is bridging the photo domain $\mathcal{X}$ and the sketch domain $Y$ by using the line-drawing domain $\mathcal{Z}$. Specially, we map both photos and sketches to line-drawings by using a neural style transfer method, i.e. $F: \mathcal{X}/\mathcal{Y} \mapsto \mathcal{Z}$. Consequently, we obtain \textit{pseudo paired data} $(\mathcal{Z}, \mathcal{Y})$, and can learn the mapping $G:\mathcal{Z} \mapsto \mathcal{Y}$ in a supervised learning manner. In the inference stage, given a facial photo, we can first transfer it to a line-drawing and then to a sketch by $G \circ F$. Additionally, we propose a novel stroke loss for generating different types of strokes. Our method, termed sRender, accords well with human artists' rendering process. Experimental results demonstrate that sRender can generate multi-style sketches, and significantly outperforms existing unpaired image-to-image translation methods.

* accepted by ICASSP2021 

Learning to Sketch Human Facial Portraits using Personal Styles by Case-Based Reasoning

Sep 13, 2016
Bingwen Jin, Songhua Xu, Weidong Geng

This paper employs case-based reasoning (CBR) to capture the personal styles of individual artists and generate the human facial portraits from photos accordingly. For each human artist to be mimicked, a series of cases are firstly built-up from her/his exemplars of source facial photo and hand-drawn sketch, and then its stylization for facial photo is transformed as a style-transferring process of iterative refinement by looking-for and applying best-fit cases in a sense of style optimization. Two models, fitness evaluation model and parameter estimation model, are learned for case retrieval and adaptation respectively from these cases. The fitness evaluation model is to decide which case is best-fitted to the sketching of current interest, and the parameter estimation model is to automate case adaptation. The resultant sketch is synthesized progressively with an iterative loop of retrieval and adaptation of candidate cases until the desired aesthetic style is achieved. To explore the effectiveness and advantages of the novel approach, we experimentally compare the sketch portraits generated by the proposed method with that of a state-of-the-art example-based facial sketch generation algorithm as well as a couple commercial software packages. The comparisons reveal that our CBR based synthesis method for facial portraits is superior both in capturing and reproducing artists' personal illustration styles to the peer methods.


A Closed-form Solution to Photorealistic Image Stylization

Jul 27, 2018
Yijun Li, Ming-Yu Liu, Xueting Li, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Jan Kautz

Photorealistic image stylization concerns transferring style of a reference photo to a content photo with the constraint that the stylized photo should remain photorealistic. While several photorealistic image stylization methods exist, they tend to generate spatially inconsistent stylizations with noticeable artifacts. In this paper, we propose a method to address these issues. The proposed method consists of a stylization step and a smoothing step. While the stylization step transfers the style of the reference photo to the content photo, the smoothing step ensures spatially consistent stylizations. Each of the steps has a closed-form solution and can be computed efficiently. We conduct extensive experimental validations. The results show that the proposed method generates photorealistic stylization outputs that are more preferred by human subjects as compared to those by the competing methods while running much faster. Source code and additional results are available at .

* Accepted by ECCV 2018 

Face Destylization

Feb 05, 2018
Fatemeh Shiri, Xin Yu, Fatih Porikli, Piotr Koniusz

Numerous style transfer methods which produce artistic styles of portraits have been proposed to date. However, the inverse problem of converting the stylized portraits back into realistic faces is yet to be investigated thoroughly. Reverting an artistic portrait to its original photo-realistic face image has potential to facilitate human perception and identity analysis. In this paper, we propose a novel Face Destylization Neural Network (FDNN) to restore the latent photo-realistic faces from the stylized ones. We develop a Style Removal Network composed of convolutional, fully-connected and deconvolutional layers. The convolutional layers are designed to extract facial components from stylized face images. Consecutively, the fully-connected layer transfers the extracted feature maps of stylized images into the corresponding feature maps of real faces and the deconvolutional layers generate real faces from the transferred feature maps. To enforce the destylized faces to be similar to authentic face images, we employ a discriminative network, which consists of convolutional and fully connected layers. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our network by conducting experiments on an extensive set of synthetic images. Furthermore, we illustrate our network can recover faces from stylized portraits and real paintings for which the stylized data was unavailable during the training phase.


Automatic Content-Aware Color and Tone Stylization

Nov 12, 2015
Joon-Young Lee, Kalyan Sunkavalli, Zhe Lin, Xiaohui Shen, In So Kweon

We introduce a new technique that automatically generates diverse, visually compelling stylizations for a photograph in an unsupervised manner. We achieve this by learning style ranking for a given input using a large photo collection and selecting a diverse subset of matching styles for final style transfer. We also propose a novel technique that transfers the global color and tone of the chosen exemplars to the input photograph while avoiding the common visual artifacts produced by the existing style transfer methods. Together, our style selection and transfer techniques produce compelling, artifact-free results on a wide range of input photographs, and a user study shows that our results are preferred over other techniques.

* 12 pages, 11 figures 

Deep Factorised Inverse-Sketching

Aug 07, 2018
Kaiyue Pang, Da Li, Jifei Song, Yi-Zhe Song, Tao Xiang, Timothy M. Hospedales

Modelling human free-hand sketches has become topical recently, driven by practical applications such as fine-grained sketch based image retrieval (FG-SBIR). Sketches are clearly related to photo edge-maps, but a human free-hand sketch of a photo is not simply a clean rendering of that photo's edge map. Instead there is a fundamental process of abstraction and iconic rendering, where overall geometry is warped and salient details are selectively included. In this paper we study this sketching process and attempt to invert it. We model this inversion by translating iconic free-hand sketches to contours that resemble more geometrically realistic projections of object boundaries, and separately factorise out the salient added details. This factorised re-representation makes it easier to match a free-hand sketch to a photo instance of an object. Specifically, we propose a novel unsupervised image style transfer model based on enforcing a cyclic embedding consistency constraint. A deep FG-SBIR model is then formulated to accommodate complementary discriminative detail from each factorised sketch for better matching with the corresponding photo. Our method is evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively to demonstrate its superiority over a number of state-of-the-art alternatives for style transfer and FG-SBIR.

* Accepted to ECCV 2018 

Multimodal Transfer: A Hierarchical Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Fast Artistic Style Transfer

Apr 11, 2017
Xin Wang, Geoffrey Oxholm, Da Zhang, Yuan-Fang Wang

Transferring artistic styles onto everyday photographs has become an extremely popular task in both academia and industry. Recently, offline training has replaced on-line iterative optimization, enabling nearly real-time stylization. When those stylization networks are applied directly to high-resolution images, however, the style of localized regions often appears less similar to the desired artistic style. This is because the transfer process fails to capture small, intricate textures and maintain correct texture scales of the artworks. Here we propose a multimodal convolutional neural network that takes into consideration faithful representations of both color and luminance channels, and performs stylization hierarchically with multiple losses of increasing scales. Compared to state-of-the-art networks, our network can also perform style transfer in nearly real-time by conducting much more sophisticated training offline. By properly handling style and texture cues at multiple scales using several modalities, we can transfer not just large-scale, obvious style cues but also subtle, exquisite ones. That is, our scheme can generate results that are visually pleasing and more similar to multiple desired artistic styles with color and texture cues at multiple scales.

* Accepted by CVPR 2017 

UPST-NeRF: Universal Photorealistic Style Transfer of Neural Radiance Fields for 3D Scene

Aug 15, 2022
Yaosen Chen, Qi Yuan, Zhiqiang Li, Yuegen Liu Wei Wang Chaoping Xie, Xuming Wen, Qien Yu

3D scenes photorealistic stylization aims to generate photorealistic images from arbitrary novel views according to a given style image while ensuring consistency when rendering from different viewpoints. Some existing stylization methods with neural radiance fields can effectively predict stylized scenes by combining the features of the style image with multi-view images to train 3D scenes. However, these methods generate novel view images that contain objectionable artifacts. Besides, they cannot achieve universal photorealistic stylization for a 3D scene. Therefore, a styling image must retrain a 3D scene representation network based on a neural radiation field. We propose a novel 3D scene photorealistic style transfer framework to address these issues. It can realize photorealistic 3D scene style transfer with a 2D style image. We first pre-trained a 2D photorealistic style transfer network, which can meet the photorealistic style transfer between any given content image and style image. Then, we use voxel features to optimize a 3D scene and get the geometric representation of the scene. Finally, we jointly optimize a hyper network to realize the scene photorealistic style transfer of arbitrary style images. In the transfer stage, we use a pre-trained 2D photorealistic network to constrain the photorealistic style of different views and different style images in the 3D scene. The experimental results show that our method not only realizes the 3D photorealistic style transfer of arbitrary style images but also outperforms the existing methods in terms of visual quality and consistency. Project page: