User-generated texts such as reviews and social media are valuable sources of information. Online reviews are important assets for users to buy a product, see a movie, or make a decision. Therefore, rating of a review is one of the reliable factors for all users to read and trust the reviews. This paper analyzes the texts of the reviews to evaluate and predict the ratings. Moreover, we study the effect of lexical features generated from text as well as sentimental words on the accuracy of rating prediction. Our analysis show that words with high information gain score are more efficient compared to words with high TF-IDF value. In addition, we explore the best number of features for predicting the ratings of the reviews.
In this paper, we describe a solution to tackle a common set of challenges in e-commerce, which arise from the fact that new products are continually being added to the catalogue. The challenges involve properly personalising the customer experience, forecasting demand and planning the product range. We argue that the foundational piece to solve all of these problems is having consistent and detailed information about each product, information that is rarely available or consistent given the multitude of suppliers and types of products. We describe in detail the architecture and methodology implemented at ASOS, one of the world's largest fashion e-commerce retailers, to tackle this problem. We then show how this quantitative understanding of the products can be leveraged to improve recommendations in a hybrid recommender system approach.
The past decade has seen an explosion in the amount of digital information stored in electronic health records (EHR). While primarily designed for archiving patient clinical information and administrative healthcare tasks, many researchers have found secondary use of these records for various clinical informatics tasks. Over the same period, the machine learning community has seen widespread advances in deep learning techniques, which also have been successfully applied to the vast amount of EHR data. In this paper, we review these deep EHR systems, examining architectures, technical aspects, and clinical applications. We also identify shortcomings of current techniques and discuss avenues of future research for EHR-based deep learning.
In the present work, we develop a deep-learning approach for differentiating the eye-movement behavior of people with neurodegenerative diseases over healthy control subjects during reading well-defined sentences. We define an information compaction of the eye-tracking data of subjects without and with probable Alzheimer's disease when reading a set of well-defined, previously validated, sentences including high-, low-predictable sentences, and proverbs. Using this information we train a set of denoising sparse-autoencoders and build a deep neural network with these and a softmax classifier. Our results are very promising and show that these models may help to understand the dynamics of eye movement behavior and its relationship with underlying neuropsychological correlates.
With the development of depth cameras such as Kinect and Intel Realsense, RGB-D based human detection receives continuous research attention due to its usage in a variety of applications. In this paper, we propose a new Multi-Glimpse LSTM (MG-LSTM) network, in which multi-scale contextual information is sequentially integrated to promote the human detection performance. Furthermore, we propose a feature fusion strategy based on our MG-LSTM network to better incorporate the RGB and depth information. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to utilize LSTM structure for RGB-D based human detection. Our method achieves superior performance on two publicly available datasets.
Information distribution by electronic messages is a privileged means of transmission for many businesses and individuals, often under the form of plain-text tables. As their number grows, it becomes necessary to use an algorithm to extract text and numbers instead of a human. Usual methods are focused on regular expressions or on a strict structure in the data, but are not efficient when we have many variations, fuzzy structure or implicit labels. In this paper we introduce SC2T, a totally self-supervised model for constructing vector representations of tokens in semi-structured messages by using characters and context levels that address these issues. It can then be used for an unsupervised labeling of tokens, or be the basis for a semi-supervised information extraction system.
While deep learning has led to remarkable advances across diverse applications, it struggles in domains where the data distribution changes over the course of learning. In stark contrast, biological neural networks continually adapt to changing domains, possibly by leveraging complex molecular machinery to solve many tasks simultaneously. In this study, we introduce intelligent synapses that bring some of this biological complexity into artificial neural networks. Each synapse accumulates task relevant information over time, and exploits this information to rapidly store new memories without forgetting old ones. We evaluate our approach on continual learning of classification tasks, and show that it dramatically reduces forgetting while maintaining computational efficiency.
We propose graph-based predictable feature analysis (GPFA), a new method for unsupervised learning of predictable features from high-dimensional time series, where high predictability is understood very generically as low variance in the distribution of the next data point given the previous ones. We show how this measure of predictability can be understood in terms of graph embedding as well as how it relates to the information-theoretic measure of predictive information in special cases. We confirm the effectiveness of GPFA on different datasets, comparing it to three existing algorithms with similar objectives---namely slow feature analysis, forecastable component analysis, and predictable feature analysis---to which GPFA shows very competitive results.
Agent modelling involves considering how other agents will behave, in order to influence your own actions. In this paper, we explore the use of agent modelling in the hidden-information, collaborative card game Hanabi. We implement a number of rule-based agents, both from the literature and of our own devising, in addition to an Information Set Monte Carlo Tree Search (IS-MCTS) agent. We observe poor results from IS-MCTS, so construct a new, predictor version that uses a model of the agents with which it is paired. We observe a significant improvement in game-playing strength from this agent in comparison to IS-MCTS, resulting from its consideration of what the other agents in a game would do. In addition, we create a flawed rule-based agent to highlight the predictor's capabilities with such an agent.
This paper proposes a geodesic-distance-based feature that encodes global information for improved video segmentation algorithms. The feature is a joint histogram of intensity and geodesic distances, where the geodesic distances are computed as the shortest paths between superpixels via their boundaries. We also incorporate adaptive voting weights and spatial pyramid configurations to include spatial information into the geodesic histogram feature and show that this further improves results. The feature is generic and can be used as part of various algorithms. In experiments, we test the geodesic histogram feature by incorporating it into two existing video segmentation frameworks. This leads to significantly better performance in 3D video segmentation benchmarks on two datasets.