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"Image To Image Translation": models, code, and papers

Twin-GAN -- Unpaired Cross-Domain Image Translation with Weight-Sharing GANs

Aug 26, 2018
Jerry Li

We present a framework for translating unlabeled images from one domain into analog images in another domain. We employ a progressively growing skip-connected encoder-generator structure and train it with a GAN loss for realistic output, a cycle consistency loss for maintaining same-domain translation identity, and a semantic consistency loss that encourages the network to keep the input semantic features in the output. We apply our framework on the task of translating face images, and show that it is capable of learning semantic mappings for face images with no supervised one-to-one image mapping.

  
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Learning Unsupervised Cross-domain Image-to-Image Translation Using a Shared Discriminator

Feb 09, 2021
Rajiv Kumar, Rishabh Dabral, G. Sivakumar

Unsupervised image-to-image translation is used to transform images from a source domain to generate images in a target domain without using source-target image pairs. Promising results have been obtained for this problem in an adversarial setting using two independent GANs and attention mechanisms. We propose a new method that uses a single shared discriminator between the two GANs, which improves the overall efficacy. We assess the qualitative and quantitative results on image transfiguration, a cross-domain translation task, in a setting where the target domain shares similar semantics to the source domain. Our results indicate that even without adding attention mechanisms, our method performs at par with attention-based methods and generates images of comparable quality.

  
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Hue-Net: Intensity-based Image-to-Image Translation with Differentiable Histogram Loss Functions

Dec 12, 2019
Mor Avi-Aharon, Assaf Arbelle, Tammy Riklin Raviv

We present the Hue-Net - a novel Deep Learning framework for Intensity-based Image-to-Image Translation. The key idea is a new technique termed network augmentation which allows a differentiable construction of intensity histograms from images. We further introduce differentiable representations of (1D) cyclic and joint (2D) histograms and use them for defining loss functions based on cyclic Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) and Mutual Information (MI). While the Hue-Net can be applied to several image-to-image translation tasks, we choose to demonstrate its strength on color transfer problems, where the aim is to paint a source image with the colors of a different target image. Note that the desired output image does not exist and therefore cannot be used for supervised pixel-to-pixel learning. This is accomplished by using the HSV color-space and defining an intensity-based loss that is built on the EMD between the cyclic hue histograms of the output and the target images. To enforce color-free similarity between the source and the output images, we define a semantic-based loss by a differentiable approximation of the MI of these images. The incorporation of histogram loss functions in addition to an adversarial loss enables the construction of semantically meaningful and realistic images. Promising results are presented for different datasets.

  
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MAT: A Multimodal Attentive Translator for Image Captioning

Aug 10, 2017
Chang Liu, Fuchun Sun, Changhu Wang, Feng Wang, Alan Yuille

In this work we formulate the problem of image captioning as a multimodal translation task. Analogous to machine translation, we present a sequence-to-sequence recurrent neural networks (RNN) model for image caption generation. Different from most existing work where the whole image is represented by convolutional neural network (CNN) feature, we propose to represent the input image as a sequence of detected objects which feeds as the source sequence of the RNN model. In this way, the sequential representation of an image can be naturally translated to a sequence of words, as the target sequence of the RNN model. To represent the image in a sequential way, we extract the objects features in the image and arrange them in a order using convolutional neural networks. To further leverage the visual information from the encoded objects, a sequential attention layer is introduced to selectively attend to the objects that are related to generate corresponding words in the sentences. Extensive experiments are conducted to validate the proposed approach on popular benchmark dataset, i.e., MS COCO, and the proposed model surpasses the state-of-the-art methods in all metrics following the dataset splits of previous work. The proposed approach is also evaluated by the evaluation server of MS COCO captioning challenge, and achieves very competitive results, e.g., a CIDEr of 1.029 (c5) and 1.064 (c40).

  
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Delving into Rectifiers in Style-Based Image Translation

Nov 23, 2021
Yipeng Zhang, Bingliang Hu, Hailong Ning, Quang Wang

While modern image translation techniques can create photorealistic synthetic images, they have limited style controllability, thus could suffer from translation errors. In this work, we show that the activation function is one of the crucial components in controlling the direction of image synthesis. Specifically, we explicitly demonstrated that the slope parameters of the rectifier could change the data distribution and be used independently to control the direction of translation. To improve the style controllability, two simple but effective techniques are proposed, including Adaptive ReLU (AdaReLU) and structural adaptive function. The AdaReLU can dynamically adjust the slope parameters according to the target style and can be utilized to increase the controllability by combining with Adaptive Instance Normalization (AdaIN). Meanwhile, the structural adaptative function enables rectifiers to manipulate the structure of feature maps more effectively. It is composed of the proposed structural convolution (StruConv), an efficient convolutional module that can choose the area to be activated based on the mean and variance specified by AdaIN. Extensive experiments show that the proposed techniques can greatly increase the network controllability and output diversity in style-based image translation tasks.

* 14 pages,14 figures 
  
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Visualisation of Medical Image Fusion and Translation for Accurate Diagnosis of High Grade Gliomas

Jan 30, 2020
Nishant Kumar, Nico Hoffmann, Matthias Kirsch, Stefan Gumhold

The medical image fusion combines two or more modalities into a single view while medical image translation synthesizes new images and assists in data augmentation. Together, these methods help in faster diagnosis of high grade malignant gliomas. However, they might be untrustworthy due to which neurosurgeons demand a robust visualisation tool to verify the reliability of the fusion and translation results before they make pre-operative surgical decisions. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to compute a confidence heat map between the source-target image pair by estimating the information transfer from the source to the target image using the joint probability distribution of the two images. We evaluate several fusion and translation methods using our visualisation procedure and showcase its robustness in enabling neurosurgeons to make finer clinical decisions.

* 5 pages, 3 figures, IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (IEEE ISBI 2020) 
  
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Learning Spatial Pyramid Attentive Pooling in Image Synthesis and Image-to-Image Translation

Jan 18, 2019
Wei Sun, Tianfu Wu

Image synthesis and image-to-image translation are two important generative learning tasks. Remarkable progress has been made by learning Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)~\cite{goodfellow2014generative} and cycle-consistent GANs (CycleGANs)~\cite{zhu2017unpaired} respectively. This paper presents a method of learning Spatial Pyramid Attentive Pooling (SPAP) which is a novel architectural unit and can be easily integrated into both generators and discriminators in GANs and CycleGANs. The proposed SPAP integrates Atrous spatial pyramid~\cite{chen2018deeplab}, a proposed cascade attention mechanism and residual connections~\cite{he2016deep}. It leverages the advantages of the three components to facilitate effective end-to-end generative learning: (i) the capability of fusing multi-scale information by ASPP; (ii) the capability of capturing relative importance between both spatial locations (especially multi-scale context) or feature channels by attention; (iii) the capability of preserving information and enhancing optimization feasibility by residual connections. Coarse-to-fine and fine-to-coarse SPAP are studied and intriguing attention maps are observed in both tasks. In experiments, the proposed SPAP is tested in GANs on the Celeba-HQ-128 dataset~\cite{karras2017progressive}, and tested in CycleGANs on the Image-to-Image translation datasets including the Cityscape dataset~\cite{cordts2016cityscapes}, Facade and Aerial Maps dataset~\cite{zhu2017unpaired}, both obtaining better performance.

* 12 pages 
  
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Implicit Pairs for Boosting Unpaired Image-to-Image Translation

Apr 15, 2019
Yiftach Ginger, Dov Danon, Hadar Averbuch-Elor, Daniel Cohen-Or

In image-to-image translation the goal is to learn a mapping from one image domain to another. Supervised approaches learn the mapping from paired samples. However, collecting large sets of image pairs is often prohibitively expensive or infeasible. In our work, we show that even training on the pairs implicitly, boosts the performance of unsupervised techniques by over 14% across several measurements. We illustrate that the injection of implicit pairs into unpaired sets strengthens the mapping between the two domains and improves the compatibility of their distributions. Furthermore, we show that for this purpose the implicit pairs can be pseudo-pairs, i.e., paired samples which only approximate a real pair. We demonstrate the effect of the approximated implicit samples on image-to-image translation problems, where such pseudo-pairs can be synthesized in one direction, but not in the other. We further show that pseudo-pairs are significantly more effective as implicit pairs in an unpaired setting, than directly using them explicitly in a paired setting.

  
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