Walking-assistive devices require adaptive control methods to ensure smooth transitions between various modes of locomotion. For this purpose, detecting human locomotion modes (e.g., level walking or stair ascent) in advance is crucial for improving the intelligence and transparency of such robotic systems. This study proposes Deep-STF, a unified end-to-end deep learning model designed for integrated feature extraction in spatial, temporal, and frequency dimensions from surface electromyography (sEMG) signals. Our model enables accurate and robust continuous prediction of nine locomotion modes and 15 transitions at varying prediction time intervals, ranging from 100 to 500 ms. In addition, we introduced the concept of 'stable prediction time' as a distinct metric to quantify prediction efficiency. This term refers to the duration during which consistent and accurate predictions of mode transitions are made, measured from the time of the fifth correct prediction to the occurrence of the critical event leading to the task transition. This distinction between stable prediction time and prediction time is vital as it underscores our focus on the precision and reliability of mode transition predictions. Experimental results showcased Deep-STP's cutting-edge prediction performance across diverse locomotion modes and transitions, relying solely on sEMG data. When forecasting 100 ms ahead, Deep-STF surpassed CNN and other machine learning techniques, achieving an outstanding average prediction accuracy of 96.48%. Even with an extended 500 ms prediction horizon, accuracy only marginally decreased to 93.00%. The averaged stable prediction times for detecting next upcoming transitions spanned from 28.15 to 372.21 ms across the 100-500 ms time advances.
Recently, although pre-trained language models have achieved great success on multilingual NLP (Natural Language Processing) tasks, the lack of training data on many tasks in low-resource languages still limits their performance. One effective way of solving that problem is to transfer knowledge from rich-resource languages to low-resource languages. However, many previous works on cross-lingual transfer rely heavily on the parallel corpus or translation models, which are often difficult to obtain. We propose a novel approach to conduct zero-shot cross-lingual transfer with a pre-trained model. It consists of a Bilingual Task Fitting module that applies task-related bilingual information alignment; a self-training module generates pseudo soft and hard labels for unlabeled data and utilizes them to conduct self-training. We got the new SOTA on different tasks without any dependencies on the parallel corpus or translation models.
Predicting lower limb motion intent is vital for controlling exoskeleton robots and prosthetic limbs. Surface electromyography (sEMG) attracts increasing attention in recent years as it enables ahead-of-time prediction of motion intentions before actual movement. However, the estimation performance of human joint trajectory remains a challenging problem due to the inter- and intra-subject variations. The former is related to physiological differences (such as height and weight) and preferred walking patterns of individuals, while the latter is mainly caused by irregular and gait-irrelevant muscle activity. This paper proposes a model integrating two gait cycle-inspired learning strategies to mitigate the challenge for predicting human knee joint trajectory. The first strategy is to decouple knee joint angles into motion patterns and amplitudes former exhibit low variability while latter show high variability among individuals. By learning through separate network entities, the model manages to capture both the common and personalized gait features. In the second, muscle principal activation masks are extracted from gait cycles in a prolonged walk. These masks are used to filter out components unrelated to walking from raw sEMG and provide auxiliary guidance to capture more gait-related features. Experimental results indicate that our model could predict knee angles with the average root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.03(0.49) degrees and 50ms ahead of time. To our knowledge this is the best performance in relevant literatures that has been reported, with reduced RMSE by at least 9.5%.
This paper addresses the online motion planning problem of mobile robots under complex high-level tasks. The robot motion is modeled as an uncertain Markov Decision Process (MDP) due to limited initial knowledge, while the task is specified as Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulas. The proposed framework enables the robot to explore and update the system model in a Bayesian way, while simultaneously optimizing the asymptotic costs of satisfying the complex temporal task. Theoretical guarantees are provided for the synthesized outgoing policy and safety policy. More importantly, instead of greedy exploration under the classic ergodicity assumption, a safe-return requirement is enforced such that the robot can always return to home states with a high probability. The overall methods are validated by numerical simulations.
Limited by the locality of convolutional neural networks, most existing local features description methods only learn local descriptors with local information and lack awareness of global and surrounding spatial context. In this work, we focus on making local descriptors "look wider to describe better" by learning local Descriptors with More Than just Local information (MTLDesc). Specifically, we resort to context augmentation and spatial attention mechanisms to make our MTLDesc obtain non-local awareness. First, Adaptive Global Context Augmented Module and Diverse Local Context Augmented Module are proposed to construct robust local descriptors with context information from global to local. Second, Consistent Attention Weighted Triplet Loss is designed to integrate spatial attention awareness into both optimization and matching stages of local descriptors learning. Third, Local Features Detection with Feature Pyramid is given to obtain more stable and accurate keypoints localization. With the above innovations, the performance of our MTLDesc significantly surpasses the prior state-of-the-art local descriptors on HPatches, Aachen Day-Night localization and InLoc indoor localization benchmarks.
Matrix multiplication is the bedrock in Deep Learning inference application. When it comes to hardware acceleration on edge computing devices, matrix multiplication often takes up a great majority of the time. To achieve better performance in edge computing, we introduce a low-power Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) accelerator based on a pipelined matrix multiplication scheme and a nonuniform quantization methodology. The implementation is running on Field-programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices and tested its performance on handwritten digit classification and Q-learning tasks. Results show that our method can achieve better performance with fewer power consumption.
Incorporating lexical knowledge into deep learning models has been proved to be very effective for sequence labeling tasks. However, previous works commonly have difficulty dealing with large-scale dynamic lexicons which often cause excessive matching noise and problems of frequent updates. In this paper, we propose DyLex, a plug-in lexicon incorporation approach for BERT based sequence labeling tasks. Instead of leveraging embeddings of words in the lexicon as in conventional methods, we adopt word-agnostic tag embeddings to avoid re-training the representation while updating the lexicon. Moreover, we employ an effective supervised lexical knowledge denoising method to smooth out matching noise. Finally, we introduce a col-wise attention based knowledge fusion mechanism to guarantee the pluggability of the proposed framework. Experiments on ten datasets of three tasks show that the proposed framework achieves new SOTA, even with very large scale lexicons.
Stereo matching is a critical task for robot navigation and autonomous vehicles, providing the depth estimation of surroundings. Among all stereo matching algorithms, Efficient Large-scale Stereo (ELAS) offers one of the best tradeoffs between efficiency and accuracy. However, due to the inherent iterative process and unpredictable memory access pattern, ELAS can only run at 1.5-3 fps on high-end CPUs and difficult to achieve real-time performance on low-power platforms. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient architecture for real-time ELAS-based stereo matching on FPGA platform. Moreover, the original computational-intensive and irregular triangulation module is reformed in a regular manner with points interpolation, which is much more hardware-friendly. Optimizations, including memory management, parallelism, and pipelining, are further utilized to reduce memory footprint and improve throughput. Compared with Intel i7 CPU and the state-of-the-art CPU+FPGA implementation, our FPGA realization achieves up to 38.4x and 3.32x frame rate improvement, and up to 27.1x and 1.13x energy efficiency improvement, respectively.
In our past few years' of commercial deployment experiences, we identify localization as a critical task in autonomous machine applications, and a great acceleration target. In this paper, based on the observation that the visual frontend is a major performance and energy consumption bottleneck, we present our design and implementation of an energy-efficient hardware architecture for ORB (Oriented-Fast and Rotated- BRIEF) based localization system on FPGAs. To support our multi-sensor autonomous machine localization system, we present hardware synchronization, frame-multiplexing, and parallelization techniques, which are integrated in our design. Compared to Nvidia TX1 and Intel i7, our FPGA-based implementation achieves 5.6x and 3.4x speedup, as well as 3.0x and 34.6x power reduction, respectively.