People often imagine relevant scenes to aid in the writing process. In this work, we aim to utilize visual information for composition in the same manner as humans. We propose a method, LIVE, that makes pre-trained language models (PLMs) Learn to Imagine for Visuallyaugmented natural language gEneration. First, we imagine the scene based on the text: we use a diffusion model to synthesize high-quality images conditioned on the input texts. Second, we use CLIP to determine whether the text can evoke the imagination in a posterior way. Finally, our imagination is dynamic, and we conduct synthesis for each sentence rather than generate only one image for an entire paragraph. Technically, we propose a novel plug-and-play fusion layer to obtain visually-augmented representations for each text. Our vision-text fusion layer is compatible with Transformerbased architecture. We have conducted extensive experiments on four generation tasks using BART and T5, and the automatic results and human evaluation demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. We will release the code, model, and data at the link: https://github.com/RUCAIBox/LIVE.
In this paper, we propose a novel language model guided captioning approach, LAMOC, for knowledge-based visual question answering (VQA). Our approach employs the generated captions by a captioning model as the context of an answer prediction model, which is a Pre-trained Language model (PLM). As the major contribution, we leverage the guidance and feedback of the prediction model to improve the capability of the captioning model. In this way, the captioning model can become aware of the task goal and information need from the PLM. To develop our approach, we design two specific training stages, where the first stage adapts the captioning model to the prediction model (selecting more suitable caption propositions for training) and the second stage tunes the captioning model according to the task goal (learning from feedback of the PLM). Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on the knowledge-based VQA task. Specifically, on the challenging A-OKVQA dataset, LAMOC outperforms several competitive zero-shot methods and even achieves comparable results to a fine-tuned VLP model. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/RUCAIBox/LAMOC.
Inspired by the superior language abilities of large language models (LLM), large vision-language models (LVLM) have been recently explored by integrating powerful LLMs for improving the performance on complex multimodal tasks. Despite the promising progress on LVLMs, we find that LVLMs suffer from the hallucination problem, i.e. they tend to generate objects that are inconsistent with the target images in the descriptions. To investigate it, this work presents the first systematic study on object hallucination of LVLMs. We conduct the evaluation experiments on several representative LVLMs, and show that they mostly suffer from severe object hallucination issue. We further discuss that the visual instructions may influence the hallucination, and find that: objects that frequently occur in the visual instructions or co-occur with the image objects, are obviously prone to be hallucinated by LVLMs. Besides, we find that existing evaluation methods might be affected by the input instructions and generation styles of LVLMs. Thus, we further design an improved evaluation method for object hallucination by proposing a polling-based query method called POPE. Experiment results demonstrate that our POPE can evaluate the object hallucination in a more stable and flexible way. Our codes and data are publicly available at https://github.com/RUCAIBox/POPE.
Language is essentially a complex, intricate system of human expressions governed by grammatical rules. It poses a significant challenge to develop capable AI algorithms for comprehending and grasping a language. As a major approach, language modeling has been widely studied for language understanding and generation in the past two decades, evolving from statistical language models to neural language models. Recently, pre-trained language models (PLMs) have been proposed by pre-training Transformer models over large-scale corpora, showing strong capabilities in solving various NLP tasks. Since researchers have found that model scaling can lead to performance improvement, they further study the scaling effect by increasing the model size to an even larger size. Interestingly, when the parameter scale exceeds a certain level, these enlarged language models not only achieve a significant performance improvement but also show some special abilities that are not present in small-scale language models. To discriminate the difference in parameter scale, the research community has coined the term large language models (LLM) for the PLMs of significant size. Recently, the research on LLMs has been largely advanced by both academia and industry, and a remarkable progress is the launch of ChatGPT, which has attracted widespread attention from society. The technical evolution of LLMs has been making an important impact on the entire AI community, which would revolutionize the way how we develop and use AI algorithms. In this survey, we review the recent advances of LLMs by introducing the background, key findings, and mainstream techniques. In particular, we focus on four major aspects of LLMs, namely pre-training, adaptation tuning, utilization, and capacity evaluation. Besides, we also summarize the available resources for developing LLMs and discuss the remaining issues for future directions.
As Transformer evolved, pre-trained models have advanced at a breakneck pace in recent years. They have dominated the mainstream techniques in natural language processing (NLP) and computer vision (CV). How to adapt pre-training to the field of Vision-and-Language (V-L) learning and improve the performance on downstream tasks becomes a focus of multimodal learning. In this paper, we review the recent progress in Vision-Language Pre-Trained Models (VL-PTMs). As the core content, we first briefly introduce several ways to encode raw images and texts to single-modal embeddings before pre-training. Then, we dive into the mainstream architectures of VL-PTMs in modeling the interaction between text and image representations. We further present widely-used pre-training tasks, after which we introduce some common downstream tasks. We finally conclude this paper and present some promising research directions. Our survey aims to provide multimodal researchers a synthesis and pointer to related research.