Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have achieved state-of-the-art performance in representation learning for graphs recently. However, the effectiveness of GNNs, which capitalize on the key operation of message propagation, highly depends on the quality of the topology structure. Most of the graphs in real-world scenarios follow a long-tailed distribution on their node degrees, that is, a vast majority of the nodes in the graph are tail nodes with only a few connected edges. GNNs produce inferior node representations for tail nodes since they lack structural information. In the pursuit of promoting the expressiveness of GNNs for tail nodes, we explore how the deficiency of structural information deteriorates the performance of tail nodes and propose a general Structural Augmentation based taIL nOde Representation learning framework, dubbed as SAILOR, which can jointly learn to augment the graph structure and extract more informative representations for tail nodes. Extensive experiments on public benchmark datasets demonstrate that SAILOR can significantly improve the tail node representations and outperform the state-of-the-art baselines.
Learning representations on large-sized graphs is a long-standing challenge due to the inter-dependence nature involved in massive data points. Transformers, as an emerging class of foundation encoders for graph-structured data, have shown promising performance on small graphs due to its global attention capable of capturing all-pair influence beyond neighboring nodes. Even so, existing approaches tend to inherit the spirit of Transformers in language and vision tasks, and embrace complicated models by stacking deep multi-head attentions. In this paper, we critically demonstrate that even using a one-layer attention can bring up surprisingly competitive performance across node property prediction benchmarks where node numbers range from thousand-level to billion-level. This encourages us to rethink the design philosophy for Transformers on large graphs, where the global attention is a computation overhead hindering the scalability. We frame the proposed scheme as Simplified Graph Transformers (SGFormer), which is empowered by a simple attention model that can efficiently propagate information among arbitrary nodes in one layer. SGFormer requires none of positional encodings, feature/graph pre-processing or augmented loss. Empirically, SGFormer successfully scales to the web-scale graph ogbn-papers100M and yields up to 141x inference acceleration over SOTA Transformers on medium-sized graphs. Beyond current results, we believe the proposed methodology alone enlightens a new technical path of independent interest for building Transformers on large graphs.
The regulation of various cellular processes heavily relies on the protein complexes within a living cell, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of their three-dimensional structures to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. While neural docking techniques have exhibited promising outcomes in binary protein docking, the application of advanced neural architectures to multimeric protein docking remains uncertain. This study introduces SyNDock, an automated framework that swiftly assembles precise multimeric complexes within seconds, showcasing performance that can potentially surpass or be on par with recent advanced approaches. SyNDock possesses several appealing advantages not present in previous approaches. Firstly, SyNDock formulates multimeric protein docking as a problem of learning global transformations to holistically depict the placement of chain units of a complex, enabling a learning-centric solution. Secondly, SyNDock proposes a trainable two-step SE(3) algorithm, involving initial pairwise transformation and confidence estimation, followed by global transformation synchronization. This enables effective learning for assembling the complex in a globally consistent manner. Lastly, extensive experiments conducted on our proposed benchmark dataset demonstrate that SyNDock outperforms existing docking software in crucial performance metrics, including accuracy and runtime. For instance, it achieves a 4.5% improvement in performance and a remarkable millionfold acceleration in speed.
A common explanation for the failure of out-of-distribution (OOD) generalization is that the model trained with empirical risk minimization (ERM) learns spurious features instead of the desired invariant features. However, several recent studies challenged this explanation and found that deep networks may have already learned sufficiently good features for OOD generalization. The debate extends to the in-distribution and OOD performance correlations along with training or fine-tuning neural nets across a variety of OOD generalization tasks. To understand these seemingly contradicting phenomena, we conduct a theoretical investigation and find that ERM essentially learns both spurious features and invariant features. On the other hand, the quality of learned features during ERM pre-training significantly affects the final OOD performance, as OOD objectives rarely learn new features. Failing to capture all the underlying useful features during pre-training will further limit the final OOD performance. To remedy the issue, we propose Feature Augmented Training (FAT ), to enforce the model to learn all useful features by retaining the already learned features and augmenting new ones by multiple rounds. In each round, the retention and augmentation operations are performed on different subsets of the training data that capture distinct features. Extensive experiments show that FAT effectively learns richer features and consistently improves the OOD performance when applied to various objectives.
Subpopulation shift exists widely in many real-world applications, which refers to the training and test distributions that contain the same subpopulation groups but with different subpopulation proportions. Ignoring subpopulation shifts may lead to significant performance degradation and fairness concerns. Importance reweighting is a classical and effective way to handle the subpopulation shift. However, recent studies have recognized that most of these approaches fail to improve the performance especially when applied to over-parameterized neural networks which are capable of fitting any training samples. In this work, we propose a simple yet practical framework, called reweighted mixup (RMIX), to mitigate the overfitting issue in over-parameterized models by conducting importance weighting on the ''mixed'' samples. Benefiting from leveraging reweighting in mixup, RMIX allows the model to explore the vicinal space of minority samples more, thereby obtaining more robust model against subpopulation shift. When the subpopulation memberships are unknown, the training-trajectories-based uncertainty estimation is equipped in the proposed RMIX to flexibly characterize the subpopulation distribution. We also provide insightful theoretical analysis to verify that RMIX achieves better generalization bounds over prior works. Further, we conduct extensive empirical studies across a wide range of tasks to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Large language models have demonstrated surprising ability to perform in-context learning, i.e., these models can be directly applied to solve numerous downstream tasks by conditioning on a prompt constructed by a few input-output examples. However, prior research has shown that in-context learning can suffer from high instability due to variations in training examples, example order, and prompt formats. Therefore, the construction of an appropriate prompt is essential for improving the performance of in-context learning. In this paper, we revisit this problem from the view of predictive bias. Specifically, we introduce a metric to evaluate the predictive bias of a fixed prompt against labels or a given attributes. Then we empirically show that prompts with higher bias always lead to unsatisfactory predictive quality. Based on this observation, we propose a novel search strategy based on the greedy search to identify the near-optimal prompt for improving the performance of in-context learning. We perform comprehensive experiments with state-of-the-art mainstream models such as GPT-3 on various downstream tasks. Our results indicate that our method can enhance the model's in-context learning performance in an effective and interpretable manner.
Activity cliffs (ACs), which are generally defined as pairs of structurally similar molecules that are active against the same bio-target but significantly different in the binding potency, are of great importance to drug discovery. Up to date, the AC prediction problem, i.e., to predict whether a pair of molecules exhibit the AC relationship, has not yet been fully explored. In this paper, we first introduce ACNet, a large-scale dataset for AC prediction. ACNet curates over 400K Matched Molecular Pairs (MMPs) against 190 targets, including over 20K MMP-cliffs and 380K non-AC MMPs, and provides five subsets for model development and evaluation. Then, we propose a baseline framework to benchmark the predictive performance of molecular representations encoded by deep neural networks for AC prediction, and 16 models are evaluated in experiments. Our experimental results show that deep learning models can achieve good performance when the models are trained on tasks with adequate amount of data, while the imbalanced, low-data and out-of-distribution features of the ACNet dataset still make it challenging for deep neural networks to cope with. In addition, the traditional ECFP method shows a natural advantage on MMP-cliff prediction, and outperforms other deep learning models on most of the data subsets. To the best of our knowledge, our work constructs the first large-scale dataset for AC prediction, which may stimulate the study of AC prediction models and prompt further breakthroughs in AI-aided drug discovery. The codes and dataset can be accessed by https://drugai.github.io/ACNet/.
Subpopulation shift widely exists in many real-world machine learning applications, referring to the training and test distributions containing the same subpopulation groups but varying in subpopulation frequencies. Importance reweighting is a normal way to handle the subpopulation shift issue by imposing constant or adaptive sampling weights on each sample in the training dataset. However, some recent studies have recognized that most of these approaches fail to improve the performance over empirical risk minimization especially when applied to over-parameterized neural networks. In this work, we propose a simple yet practical framework, called uncertainty-aware mixup (UMIX), to mitigate the overfitting issue in over-parameterized models by reweighting the ''mixed'' samples according to the sample uncertainty. The training-trajectories-based uncertainty estimation is equipped in the proposed UMIX for each sample to flexibly characterize the subpopulation distribution. We also provide insightful theoretical analysis to verify that UMIX achieves better generalization bounds over prior works. Further, we conduct extensive empirical studies across a wide range of tasks to validate the effectiveness of our method both qualitatively and quantitatively. Code is available at https://github.com/TencentAILabHealthcare/UMIX.