Citations in scholarly work serve the essential purpose of acknowledging and crediting the original sources of knowledge that have been incorporated or referenced. Depending on their surrounding textual context, these citations are used for different motivations and purposes. Large Language Models (LLMs) could be helpful in capturing these fine-grained citation information via the corresponding textual context, thereby enabling a better understanding towards the literature. Furthermore, these citations also establish connections among scientific papers, providing high-quality inter-document relationships and human-constructed knowledge. Such information could be incorporated into LLMs pre-training and improve the text representation in LLMs. Therefore, in this paper, we offer a preliminary review of the mutually beneficial relationship between LLMs and citation analysis. Specifically, we review the application of LLMs for in-text citation analysis tasks, including citation classification, citation-based summarization, and citation recommendation. We then summarize the research pertinent to leveraging citation linkage knowledge to improve text representations of LLMs via citation prediction, network structure information, and inter-document relationship. We finally provide an overview of these contemporary methods and put forth potential promising avenues in combining LLMs and citation analysis for further investigation.
Learning accurate cross-domain preference mappings in the absence of overlapped users/items has presented a persistent challenge in Non-overlapping Cross-domain Recommendation (NOCDR). Despite the efforts made in previous studies to address NOCDR, several limitations still exist. Specifically, 1) while some approaches substitute overlapping users/items with overlapping behaviors, they cannot handle NOCDR scenarios where such auxiliary information is unavailable; 2) often, cross-domain preference mapping is modeled by learning deterministic explicit representation matchings between sampled users in two domains. However, this can be biased due to individual preferences and thus fails to incorporate preference continuity and universality of the general population. In light of this, we assume that despite the scattered nature of user behaviors, there exists a consistent latent preference distribution shared among common people. Modeling such distributions further allows us to capture the continuity in user behaviors within each domain and discover preference invariance across domains. To this end, we propose a Distributional domain-invariant Preference Matching method for non-overlapping Cross-Domain Recommendation (DPMCDR). For each domain, we hierarchically approximate a posterior of domain-level preference distribution with empirical evidence derived from user-item interactions. Next, we aim to build distributional implicit matchings between the domain-level preferences of two domains. This process involves mapping them to a shared latent space and seeking a consensus on domain-invariant preference by minimizing the distance between their distributional representations therein. In this way, we can identify the alignment of two non-overlapping domains if they exhibit similar patterns of domain-invariant preference.
Deep Generative AI has been a long-standing essential topic in the machine learning community, which can impact a number of application areas like text generation and computer vision. The major paradigm to train a generative model is maximum likelihood estimation, which pushes the learner to capture and approximate the target data distribution by decreasing the divergence between the model distribution and the target distribution. This formulation successfully establishes the objective of generative tasks, while it is incapable of satisfying all the requirements that a user might expect from a generative model. Reinforcement learning, serving as a competitive option to inject new training signals by creating new objectives that exploit novel signals, has demonstrated its power and flexibility to incorporate human inductive bias from multiple angles, such as adversarial learning, hand-designed rules and learned reward model to build a performant model. Thereby, reinforcement learning has become a trending research field and has stretched the limits of generative AI in both model design and application. It is reasonable to summarize and conclude advances in recent years with a comprehensive review. Although there are surveys in different application areas recently, this survey aims to shed light on a high-level review that spans a range of application areas. We provide a rigorous taxonomy in this area and make sufficient coverage on various models and applications. Notably, we also surveyed the fast-developing large language model area. We conclude this survey by showing the potential directions that might tackle the limit of current models and expand the frontiers for generative AI.
Reinforcement learning serves as a potent tool for modeling dynamic user interests within recommender systems, garnering increasing research attention of late. However, a significant drawback persists: its poor data efficiency, stemming from its interactive nature. The training of reinforcement learning-based recommender systems demands expensive online interactions to amass adequate trajectories, essential for agents to learn user preferences. This inefficiency renders reinforcement learning-based recommender systems a formidable undertaking, necessitating the exploration of potential solutions. Recent strides in offline reinforcement learning present a new perspective. Offline reinforcement learning empowers agents to glean insights from offline datasets and deploy learned policies in online settings. Given that recommender systems possess extensive offline datasets, the framework of offline reinforcement learning aligns seamlessly. Despite being a burgeoning field, works centered on recommender systems utilizing offline reinforcement learning remain limited. This survey aims to introduce and delve into offline reinforcement learning within recommender systems, offering an inclusive review of existing literature in this domain. Furthermore, we strive to underscore prevalent challenges, opportunities, and future pathways, poised to propel research in this evolving field.
As a fundamental aspect of human life, two-person interactions contain meaningful information about people's activities, relationships, and social settings. Human action recognition serves as the foundation for many smart applications, with a strong focus on personal privacy. However, recognizing two-person interactions poses more challenges due to increased body occlusion and overlap compared to single-person actions. In this paper, we propose a point cloud-based network named Two-stream Multi-level Dynamic Point Transformer for two-person interaction recognition. Our model addresses the challenge of recognizing two-person interactions by incorporating local-region spatial information, appearance information, and motion information. To achieve this, we introduce a designed frame selection method named Interval Frame Sampling (IFS), which efficiently samples frames from videos, capturing more discriminative information in a relatively short processing time. Subsequently, a frame features learning module and a two-stream multi-level feature aggregation module extract global and partial features from the sampled frames, effectively representing the local-region spatial information, appearance information, and motion information related to the interactions. Finally, we apply a transformer to perform self-attention on the learned features for the final classification. Extensive experiments are conducted on two large-scale datasets, the interaction subsets of NTU RGB+D 60 and NTU RGB+D 120. The results show that our network outperforms state-of-the-art approaches across all standard evaluation settings.
Human Activity Recognition is an important task in many human-computer collaborative scenarios, whilst having various practical applications. Although uni-modal approaches have been extensively studied, they suffer from data quality and require modality-specific feature engineering, thus not being robust and effective enough for real-world deployment. By utilizing various sensors, Multi-modal Human Activity Recognition could utilize the complementary information to build models that can generalize well. While deep learning methods have shown promising results, their potential in extracting salient multi-modal spatial-temporal features and better fusing complementary information has not been fully explored. Also, reducing the complexity of the multi-modal approach for edge deployment is another problem yet to resolve. To resolve the issues, a knowledge distillation-based Multi-modal Mid-Fusion approach, DMFT, is proposed to conduct informative feature extraction and fusion to resolve the Multi-modal Human Activity Recognition task efficiently. DMFT first encodes the multi-modal input data into a unified representation. Then the DMFT teacher model applies an attentive multi-modal spatial-temporal transformer module that extracts the salient spatial-temporal features. A temporal mid-fusion module is also proposed to further fuse the temporal features. Then the knowledge distillation method is applied to transfer the learned representation from the teacher model to a simpler DMFT student model, which consists of a lite version of the multi-modal spatial-temporal transformer module, to produce the results. Evaluation of DMFT was conducted on two public multi-modal human activity recognition datasets with various state-of-the-art approaches. The experimental results demonstrate that the model achieves competitive performance in terms of effectiveness, scalability, and robustness.
Recommendation models are typically trained on observational user interaction data, but the interactions between latent factors in users' decision-making processes lead to complex and entangled data. Disentangling these latent factors to uncover their underlying representation can improve the robustness, interpretability, and controllability of recommendation models. This paper introduces the Causal Disentangled Variational Auto-Encoder (CaD-VAE), a novel approach for learning causal disentangled representations from interaction data in recommender systems. The CaD-VAE method considers the causal relationships between semantically related factors in real-world recommendation scenarios, rather than enforcing independence as in existing disentanglement methods. The approach utilizes structural causal models to generate causal representations that describe the causal relationship between latent factors. The results demonstrate that CaD-VAE outperforms existing methods, offering a promising solution for disentangling complex user behavior data in recommendation systems.
Reinforcement learning-based recommender systems have recently gained popularity. However, the design of the reward function, on which the agent relies to optimize its recommendation policy, is often not straightforward. Exploring the causality underlying users' behavior can take the place of the reward function in guiding the agent to capture the dynamic interests of users. Moreover, due to the typical limitations of simulation environments (e.g., data inefficiency), most of the work cannot be broadly applied in large-scale situations. Although some works attempt to convert the offline dataset into a simulator, data inefficiency makes the learning process even slower. Because of the nature of reinforcement learning (i.e., learning by interaction), it cannot collect enough data to train during a single interaction. Furthermore, traditional reinforcement learning algorithms do not have a solid capability like supervised learning methods to learn from offline datasets directly. In this paper, we propose a new model named the causal decision transformer for recommender systems (CDT4Rec). CDT4Rec is an offline reinforcement learning system that can learn from a dataset rather than from online interaction. Moreover, CDT4Rec employs the transformer architecture, which is capable of processing large offline datasets and capturing both short-term and long-term dependencies within the data to estimate the causal relationship between action, state, and reward. To demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of our model, we have conducted experiments on six real-world offline datasets and one online simulator.
Top-N recommendation aims to recommend each consumer a small set of N items from a large collection of items, and its accuracy is one of the most common indexes to evaluate the performance of a recommendation system. While a large number of algorithms are proposed to push the Top-N accuracy by learning the user preference from their history purchase data, a predictability question is naturally raised - whether there is an upper limit of such Top-N accuracy. This work investigates such predictability by studying the degree of regularity from a specific set of user behavior data. Quantifying the predictability of Top-N recommendations requires simultaneously quantifying the limits on the accuracy of the N behaviors with the highest probability. This greatly increases the difficulty of the problem. To achieve this, we firstly excavate the associations among N behaviors with the highest probability and describe the user behavior distribution based on the information theory. Then, we adopt the Fano inequality to scale and obtain the Top-N predictability. Extensive experiments are conducted on the real-world data where significant improvements are observed compared to the state-of-the-art methods. We have not only completed the predictability calculation for N targets but also obtained predictability that is much closer to the true value than existing methods. We expect our results to assist these research areas where the quantitative requirement of Top-N predictability is required.
Conditional Neural Processes~(CNPs) formulate distributions over functions and generate function observations with exact conditional likelihoods. CNPs, however, have limited expressivity for high-dimensional observations, since their predictive distribution is factorized into a product of unconstrained (typically) Gaussian outputs. Previously, this could be handled using latent variables or autoregressive likelihood, but at the expense of intractable training and quadratically increased complexity. Instead, we propose calibrating CNPs with an adversarial training scheme besides regular maximum likelihood estimates. Specifically, we train an energy-based model (EBM) with noise contrastive estimation, which enforces EBM to identify true observations from the generations of CNP. In this way, CNP must generate predictions closer to the ground-truth to fool EBM, instead of merely optimizing with respect to the fixed-form likelihood. From generative function reconstruction to downstream regression and classification tasks, we demonstrate that our method fits mainstream CNP members, showing effectiveness when unconstrained Gaussian likelihood is defined, requiring minimal computation overhead while preserving foundation properties of CNPs.