Temporal Interaction Graphs (TIGs) are widely utilized to represent real-world systems. To facilitate representation learning on TIGs, researchers have proposed a series of TIG models. However, these models are still facing two tough gaps between the pre-training and downstream predictions in their ``pre-train, predict'' training paradigm. First, the temporal discrepancy between the pre-training and inference data severely undermines the models' applicability in distant future predictions on the dynamically evolving data. Second, the semantic divergence between pretext and downstream tasks hinders their practical applications, as they struggle to align with their learning and prediction capabilities across application scenarios. Recently, the ``pre-train, prompt'' paradigm has emerged as a lightweight mechanism for model generalization. Applying this paradigm is a potential solution to solve the aforementioned challenges. However, the adaptation of this paradigm to TIGs is not straightforward. The application of prompting in static graph contexts falls short in temporal settings due to a lack of consideration for time-sensitive dynamics and a deficiency in expressive power. To address this issue, we introduce Temporal Interaction Graph Prompting (TIGPrompt), a versatile framework that seamlessly integrates with TIG models, bridging both the temporal and semantic gaps. In detail, we propose a temporal prompt generator to offer temporally-aware prompts for different tasks. These prompts stand out for their minimalistic design, relying solely on the tuning of the prompt generator with very little supervision data. To cater to varying computational resource demands, we propose an extended ``pre-train, prompt-based fine-tune'' paradigm, offering greater flexibility. Through extensive experiments, the TIGPrompt demonstrates the SOTA performance and remarkable efficiency advantages.
We propose RoHM, an approach for robust 3D human motion reconstruction from monocular RGB(-D) videos in the presence of noise and occlusions. Most previous approaches either train neural networks to directly regress motion in 3D or learn data-driven motion priors and combine them with optimization at test time. The former do not recover globally coherent motion and fail under occlusions; the latter are time-consuming, prone to local minima, and require manual tuning. To overcome these shortcomings, we exploit the iterative, denoising nature of diffusion models. RoHM is a novel diffusion-based motion model that, conditioned on noisy and occluded input data, reconstructs complete, plausible motions in consistent global coordinates. Given the complexity of the problem -- requiring one to address different tasks (denoising and infilling) in different solution spaces (local and global motion) -- we decompose it into two sub-tasks and learn two models, one for global trajectory and one for local motion. To capture the correlations between the two, we then introduce a novel conditioning module, combining it with an iterative inference scheme. We apply RoHM to a variety of tasks -- from motion reconstruction and denoising to spatial and temporal infilling. Extensive experiments on three popular datasets show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches qualitatively and quantitatively, while being faster at test time. The code will be available at https://sanweiliti.github.io/ROHM/ROHM.html.
Understanding the world in first-person view is fundamental in Augmented Reality (AR). This immersive perspective brings dramatic visual changes and unique challenges compared to third-person views. Synthetic data has empowered third-person-view vision models, but its application to embodied egocentric perception tasks remains largely unexplored. A critical challenge lies in simulating natural human movements and behaviors that effectively steer the embodied cameras to capture a faithful egocentric representation of the 3D world. To address this challenge, we introduce EgoGen, a new synthetic data generator that can produce accurate and rich ground-truth training data for egocentric perception tasks. At the heart of EgoGen is a novel human motion synthesis model that directly leverages egocentric visual inputs of a virtual human to sense the 3D environment. Combined with collision-avoiding motion primitives and a two-stage reinforcement learning approach, our motion synthesis model offers a closed-loop solution where the embodied perception and movement of the virtual human are seamlessly coupled. Compared to previous works, our model eliminates the need for a pre-defined global path, and is directly applicable to dynamic environments. Combined with our easy-to-use and scalable data generation pipeline, we demonstrate EgoGen's efficacy in three tasks: mapping and localization for head-mounted cameras, egocentric camera tracking, and human mesh recovery from egocentric views. EgoGen will be fully open-sourced, offering a practical solution for creating realistic egocentric training data and aiming to serve as a useful tool for egocentric computer vision research. Refer to our project page: https://ego-gen.github.io/.
A swarm of robots has advantages over a single robot, since it can explore larger areas much faster and is more robust to single-point failures. Accurate relative positioning is necessary to successfully carry out a collaborative mission without collisions. When Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (VSLAM) is used to estimate the poses of each robot, inter-agent loop closing is widely applied to reduce the relative positioning errors. This technique can mitigate errors using the feature points commonly observed by different robots. However, it requires significant computing and communication capabilities to detect inter-agent loops, and to process the data transmitted by multiple agents. In this paper, we propose Collaborative SLAM using Visual Odometry and Range measurements (CoVOR-SLAM) to overcome this challenge. In the framework of CoVOR-SLAM, robots only need to exchange pose estimates, covariances (uncertainty) of the estimates, and range measurements between robots. Since CoVOR-SLAM does not require to associate visual features and map points observed by different agents, the computational and communication loads are significantly reduced. The required range measurements can be obtained using pilot signals of the communication system, without requiring complex additional infrastructure. We tested CoVOR-SLAM using real images as well as real ultra-wideband-based ranges obtained with two rovers. In addition, CoVOR-SLAM is evaluated with a larger scale multi-agent setup exploiting public image datasets and ranges generated using a realistic simulation. The results show that CoVOR-SLAM can accurately estimate the robots' poses, requiring much less computational power and communication capabilities than the inter-agent loop closing technique.
* Submitted to the IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation
Temporal Interaction Graphs (TIGs) are widely employed to model intricate real-world systems such as financial systems and social networks. To capture the dynamism and interdependencies of nodes, existing TIG embedding models need to process edges sequentially and chronologically. However, this requirement prevents it from being processed in parallel and struggle to accommodate burgeoning data volumes to GPU. Consequently, many large-scale temporal interaction graphs are confined to CPU processing. Furthermore, a generalized GPU scaling and acceleration approach remains unavailable. To facilitate large-scale TIGs' implementation on GPUs for acceleration, we introduce a novel training approach namely Streaming Edge Partitioning and Parallel Acceleration for Temporal Interaction Graph Embedding (SPEED). The SPEED is comprised of a Streaming Edge Partitioning Component (SEP) which addresses space overhead issue by assigning fewer nodes to each GPU, and a Parallel Acceleration Component (PAC) which enables simultaneous training of different sub-graphs, addressing time overhead issue. Our method can achieve a good balance in computing resources, computing time, and downstream task performance. Empirical validation across 7 real-world datasets demonstrates the potential to expedite training speeds by a factor of up to 19.29x. Simultaneously, resource consumption of a single-GPU can be diminished by up to 69%, thus enabling the multiple GPU-based training and acceleration encompassing millions of nodes and billions of edges. Furthermore, our approach also maintains its competitiveness in downstream tasks.
Temporal Graph Networks (TGNs) have shown remarkable performance in learning representation for continuous-time dynamic graphs. However, real-world dynamic graphs typically contain diverse and intricate noise. Noise can significantly degrade the quality of representation generation, impeding the effectiveness of TGNs in downstream tasks. Though structure learning is widely applied to mitigate noise in static graphs, its adaptation to dynamic graph settings poses two significant challenges. i) Noise dynamics. Existing structure learning methods are ill-equipped to address the temporal aspect of noise, hampering their effectiveness in such dynamic and ever-changing noise patterns. ii) More severe noise. Noise may be introduced along with multiple interactions between two nodes, leading to the re-pollution of these nodes and consequently causing more severe noise compared to static graphs. In this paper, we present RDGSL, a representation learning method in continuous-time dynamic graphs. Meanwhile, we propose dynamic graph structure learning, a novel supervisory signal that empowers RDGSL with the ability to effectively combat noise in dynamic graphs. To address the noise dynamics issue, we introduce the Dynamic Graph Filter, where we innovatively propose a dynamic noise function that dynamically captures both current and historical noise, enabling us to assess the temporal aspect of noise and generate a denoised graph. We further propose the Temporal Embedding Learner to tackle the challenge of more severe noise, which utilizes an attention mechanism to selectively turn a blind eye to noisy edges and hence focus on normal edges, enhancing the expressiveness for representation generation that remains resilient to noise. Our method demonstrates robustness towards downstream tasks, resulting in up to 5.1% absolute AUC improvement in evolving classification versus the second-best baseline.
Continuous-time dynamic graph modeling is a crucial task for many real-world applications, such as financial risk management and fraud detection. Though existing dynamic graph modeling methods have achieved satisfactory results, they still suffer from three key limitations, hindering their scalability and further applicability. i) Indiscriminate updating. For incoming edges, existing methods would indiscriminately deal with them, which may lead to more time consumption and unexpected noisy information. ii) Ineffective node-wise long-term modeling. They heavily rely on recurrent neural networks (RNNs) as a backbone, which has been demonstrated to be incapable of fully capturing node-wise long-term dependencies in event sequences. iii) Neglect of re-occurrence patterns. Dynamic graphs involve the repeated occurrence of neighbors that indicates their importance, which is disappointedly neglected by existing methods. In this paper, we present iLoRE, a novel dynamic graph modeling method with instant node-wise Long-term modeling and Re-occurrence preservation. To overcome the indiscriminate updating issue, we introduce the Adaptive Short-term Updater module that will automatically discard the useless or noisy edges, ensuring iLoRE's effectiveness and instant ability. We further propose the Long-term Updater to realize more effective node-wise long-term modeling, where we innovatively propose the Identity Attention mechanism to empower a Transformer-based updater, bypassing the limited effectiveness of typical RNN-dominated designs. Finally, the crucial re-occurrence patterns are also encoded into a graph module for informative representation learning, which will further improve the expressiveness of our method. Our experimental results on real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our iLoRE for dynamic graph modeling.
The surgical usage of Mixed Reality (MR) has received growing attention in areas such as surgical navigation systems, skill assessment, and robot-assisted surgeries. For such applications, pose estimation for hand and surgical instruments from an egocentric perspective is a fundamental task and has been studied extensively in the computer vision field in recent years. However, the development of this field has been impeded by a lack of datasets, especially in the surgical field, where bloody gloves and reflective metallic tools make it hard to obtain 3D pose annotations for hands and objects using conventional methods. To address this issue, we propose POV-Surgery, a large-scale, synthetic, egocentric dataset focusing on pose estimation for hands with different surgical gloves and three orthopedic surgical instruments, namely scalpel, friem, and diskplacer. Our dataset consists of 53 sequences and 88,329 frames, featuring high-resolution RGB-D video streams with activity annotations, accurate 3D and 2D annotations for hand-object pose, and 2D hand-object segmentation masks. We fine-tune the current SOTA methods on POV-Surgery and further show the generalizability when applying to real-life cases with surgical gloves and tools by extensive evaluations. The code and the dataset are publicly available at batfacewayne.github.io/POV_Surgery_io/.
Automatic perception of human behaviors during social interactions is crucial for AR/VR applications, and an essential component is estimation of plausible 3D human pose and shape of our social partners from the egocentric view. One of the biggest challenges of this task is severe body truncation due to close social distances in egocentric scenarios, which brings large pose ambiguities for unseen body parts. To tackle this challenge, we propose a novel scene-conditioned diffusion method to model the body pose distribution. Conditioned on the 3D scene geometry, the diffusion model generates bodies in plausible human-scene interactions, with the sampling guided by a physics-based collision score to further resolve human-scene inter-penetrations. The classifier-free training enables flexible sampling with different conditions and enhanced diversity. A visibility-aware graph convolution model guided by per-joint visibility serves as the diffusion denoiser to incorporate inter-joint dependencies and per-body-part control. Extensive evaluations show that our method generates bodies in plausible interactions with 3D scenes, achieving both superior accuracy for visible joints and diversity for invisible body parts. The code will be available at https://sanweiliti.github.io/egohmr/egohmr.html.