Despite continual learning's long and well-established academic history, its application in real-world scenarios remains rather limited. This paper contends that this gap is attributable to a misalignment between the actual challenges of continual learning and the evaluation protocols in use, rendering proposed solutions ineffective for addressing the complexities of real-world setups. We validate our hypothesis and assess progress to date, using a new 3D semantic segmentation benchmark, OCL-3DSS. We investigate various continual learning schemes from the literature by utilizing more realistic protocols that necessitate online and continual learning for dynamic, real-world scenarios (eg., in robotics and 3D vision applications). The outcomes are sobering: all considered methods perform poorly, significantly deviating from the upper bound of joint offline training. This raises questions about the applicability of existing methods in realistic settings. Our paper aims to initiate a paradigm shift, advocating for the adoption of continual learning methods through new experimental protocols that better emulate real-world conditions to facilitate breakthroughs in the field.
We propose RoHM, an approach for robust 3D human motion reconstruction from monocular RGB(-D) videos in the presence of noise and occlusions. Most previous approaches either train neural networks to directly regress motion in 3D or learn data-driven motion priors and combine them with optimization at test time. The former do not recover globally coherent motion and fail under occlusions; the latter are time-consuming, prone to local minima, and require manual tuning. To overcome these shortcomings, we exploit the iterative, denoising nature of diffusion models. RoHM is a novel diffusion-based motion model that, conditioned on noisy and occluded input data, reconstructs complete, plausible motions in consistent global coordinates. Given the complexity of the problem -- requiring one to address different tasks (denoising and infilling) in different solution spaces (local and global motion) -- we decompose it into two sub-tasks and learn two models, one for global trajectory and one for local motion. To capture the correlations between the two, we then introduce a novel conditioning module, combining it with an iterative inference scheme. We apply RoHM to a variety of tasks -- from motion reconstruction and denoising to spatial and temporal infilling. Extensive experiments on three popular datasets show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches qualitatively and quantitatively, while being faster at test time. The code will be available at https://sanweiliti.github.io/ROHM/ROHM.html.
Understanding the world in first-person view is fundamental in Augmented Reality (AR). This immersive perspective brings dramatic visual changes and unique challenges compared to third-person views. Synthetic data has empowered third-person-view vision models, but its application to embodied egocentric perception tasks remains largely unexplored. A critical challenge lies in simulating natural human movements and behaviors that effectively steer the embodied cameras to capture a faithful egocentric representation of the 3D world. To address this challenge, we introduce EgoGen, a new synthetic data generator that can produce accurate and rich ground-truth training data for egocentric perception tasks. At the heart of EgoGen is a novel human motion synthesis model that directly leverages egocentric visual inputs of a virtual human to sense the 3D environment. Combined with collision-avoiding motion primitives and a two-stage reinforcement learning approach, our motion synthesis model offers a closed-loop solution where the embodied perception and movement of the virtual human are seamlessly coupled. Compared to previous works, our model eliminates the need for a pre-defined global path, and is directly applicable to dynamic environments. Combined with our easy-to-use and scalable data generation pipeline, we demonstrate EgoGen's efficacy in three tasks: mapping and localization for head-mounted cameras, egocentric camera tracking, and human mesh recovery from egocentric views. EgoGen will be fully open-sourced, offering a practical solution for creating realistic egocentric training data and aiming to serve as a useful tool for egocentric computer vision research. Refer to our project page: https://ego-gen.github.io/.
Recent advances in generative diffusion models have enabled the previously unfeasible capability of generating 3D assets from a single input image or a text prompt. In this work, we aim to enhance the quality and functionality of these models for the task of creating controllable, photorealistic human avatars. We achieve this by integrating a 3D morphable model into the state-of-the-art multiview-consistent diffusion approach. We demonstrate that accurate conditioning of a generative pipeline on the articulated 3D model enhances the baseline model performance on the task of novel view synthesis from a single image. More importantly, this integration facilitates a seamless and accurate incorporation of facial expression and body pose control into the generation process. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed framework is the first diffusion model to enable the creation of fully 3D-consistent, animatable, and photorealistic human avatars from a single image of an unseen subject; extensive quantitative and qualitative evaluations demonstrate the advantages of our approach over existing state-of-the-art avatar creation models on both novel view and novel expression synthesis tasks.
We propose Diffusion Noise Optimization (DNO), a new method that effectively leverages existing motion diffusion models as motion priors for a wide range of motion-related tasks. Instead of training a task-specific diffusion model for each new task, DNO operates by optimizing the diffusion latent noise of an existing pre-trained text-to-motion model. Given the corresponding latent noise of a human motion, it propagates the gradient from the target criteria defined on the motion space through the whole denoising process to update the diffusion latent noise. As a result, DNO supports any use cases where criteria can be defined as a function of motion. In particular, we show that, for motion editing and control, DNO outperforms existing methods in both achieving the objective and preserving the motion content. DNO accommodates a diverse range of editing modes, including changing trajectory, pose, joint locations, or avoiding newly added obstacles. In addition, DNO is effective in motion denoising and completion, producing smooth and realistic motion from noisy and partial inputs. DNO achieves these results at inference time without the need for model retraining, offering great versatility for any defined reward or loss function on the motion representation.
We introduce an approach that creates animatable human avatars from monocular videos using 3D Gaussian Splatting (3DGS). Existing methods based on neural radiance fields (NeRFs) achieve high-quality novel-view/novel-pose image synthesis but often require days of training, and are extremely slow at inference time. Recently, the community has explored fast grid structures for efficient training of clothed avatars. Albeit being extremely fast at training, these methods can barely achieve an interactive rendering frame rate with around 15 FPS. In this paper, we use 3D Gaussian Splatting and learn a non-rigid deformation network to reconstruct animatable clothed human avatars that can be trained within 30 minutes and rendered at real-time frame rates (50+ FPS). Given the explicit nature of our representation, we further introduce as-isometric-as-possible regularizations on both the Gaussian mean vectors and the covariance matrices, enhancing the generalization of our model on highly articulated unseen poses. Experimental results show that our method achieves comparable and even better performance compared to state-of-the-art approaches on animatable avatar creation from a monocular input, while being 400x and 250x faster in training and inference, respectively.
We present IntrinsicAvatar, a novel approach to recovering the intrinsic properties of clothed human avatars including geometry, albedo, material, and environment lighting from only monocular videos. Recent advancements in human-based neural rendering have enabled high-quality geometry and appearance reconstruction of clothed humans from just monocular videos. However, these methods bake intrinsic properties such as albedo, material, and environment lighting into a single entangled neural representation. On the other hand, only a handful of works tackle the problem of estimating geometry and disentangled appearance properties of clothed humans from monocular videos. They usually achieve limited quality and disentanglement due to approximations of secondary shading effects via learned MLPs. In this work, we propose to model secondary shading effects explicitly via Monte-Carlo ray tracing. We model the rendering process of clothed humans as a volumetric scattering process, and combine ray tracing with body articulation. Our approach can recover high-quality geometry, albedo, material, and lighting properties of clothed humans from a single monocular video, without requiring supervised pre-training using ground truth materials. Furthermore, since we explicitly model the volumetric scattering process and ray tracing, our model naturally generalizes to novel poses, enabling animation of the reconstructed avatar in novel lighting conditions.
Neural fields, a category of neural networks trained to represent high-frequency signals, have gained significant attention in recent years due to their impressive performance in modeling complex 3D data, especially large neural signed distance (SDFs) or radiance fields (NeRFs) via a single multi-layer perceptron (MLP). However, despite the power and simplicity of representing signals with an MLP, these methods still face challenges when modeling large and complex temporal signals due to the limited capacity of MLPs. In this paper, we propose an effective approach to address this limitation by incorporating temporal residual layers into neural fields, dubbed ResFields, a novel class of networks specifically designed to effectively represent complex temporal signals. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the properties of ResFields and propose a matrix factorization technique to reduce the number of trainable parameters and enhance generalization capabilities. Importantly, our formulation seamlessly integrates with existing techniques and consistently improves results across various challenging tasks: 2D video approximation, dynamic shape modeling via temporal SDFs, and dynamic NeRF reconstruction. Lastly, we demonstrate the practical utility of ResFields by showcasing its effectiveness in capturing dynamic 3D scenes from sparse sensory inputs of a lightweight capture system.
We present a novel method for populating 3D indoor scenes with virtual humans that can navigate the environment and interact with objects in a realistic manner. Existing approaches rely on high-quality training sequences that capture a diverse range of human motions in 3D scenes. However, such motion data is costly, difficult to obtain and can never cover the full range of plausible human-scene interactions in complex indoor environments. To address these challenges, we propose a reinforcement learning-based approach to learn policy networks that predict latent variables of a powerful generative motion model that is trained on a large-scale motion capture dataset (AMASS). For navigating in a 3D environment, we propose a scene-aware policy training scheme with a novel collision avoidance reward function. Combined with the powerful generative motion model, we can synthesize highly diverse human motions navigating 3D indoor scenes, meanwhile effectively avoiding obstacles. For detailed human-object interactions, we carefully curate interaction-aware reward functions by leveraging a marker-based body representation and the signed distance field (SDF) representation of the 3D scene. With a number of important training design schemes, our method can synthesize realistic and diverse human-object interactions (e.g.,~sitting on a chair and then getting up) even for out-of-distribution test scenarios with different object shapes, orientations, starting body positions, and poses. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art human-scene interaction synthesis frameworks in terms of both motion naturalness and diversity. Video results are available on the project page: https://zkf1997.github.io/DIMOS.
Denoising diffusion models have shown great promise in human motion synthesis conditioned on natural language descriptions. However, it remains a challenge to integrate spatial constraints, such as pre-defined motion trajectories and obstacles, which is essential for bridging the gap between isolated human motion and its surrounding environment. To address this issue, we propose Guided Motion Diffusion (GMD), a method that incorporates spatial constraints into the motion generation process. Specifically, we propose an effective feature projection scheme that largely enhances the coherency between spatial information and local poses. Together with a new imputation formulation, the generated motion can reliably conform to spatial constraints such as global motion trajectories. Furthermore, given sparse spatial constraints (e.g. sparse keyframes), we introduce a new dense guidance approach that utilizes the denoiser of diffusion models to turn a sparse signal into denser signals, effectively guiding the generation motion to the given constraints. The extensive experiments justify the development of GMD, which achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in text-based motion generation while being able to control the synthesized motions with spatial constraints.