Unsupervised person re-identification has achieved great success through the self-improvement of individual neural networks. However, limited by the lack of diversity of discriminant information, a single network has difficulty learning sufficient discrimination ability by itself under unsupervised conditions. To address this limit, we develop a population-based evolutionary gaming (PEG) framework in which a population of diverse neural networks is trained concurrently through selection, reproduction, mutation, and population mutual learning iteratively. Specifically, the selection of networks to preserve is modeled as a cooperative game and solved by the best-response dynamics, then the reproduction and mutation are implemented by cloning and fluctuating hyper-parameters of networks to learn more diversity, and population mutual learning improves the discrimination of networks by knowledge distillation from each other within the population. In addition, we propose a cross-reference scatter (CRS) to approximately evaluate re-ID models without labeled samples and adopt it as the criterion of network selection in PEG. CRS measures a model's performance by indirectly estimating the accuracy of its predicted pseudo-labels according to the cohesion and separation of the feature space. Extensive experiments demonstrate that (1) CRS approximately measures the performance of models without labeled samples; (2) and PEG produces new state-of-the-art accuracy for person re-identification, indicating the great potential of population-based network cooperative training for unsupervised learning.
Millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging is emerging as a promising technique for safe security inspection. It achieves a delicate balance between imaging resolution, penetrability and human safety, resulting in higher resolution compared to low-frequency microwave, stronger penetrability compared to visible light, and stronger safety compared to X ray. Despite of recent advance in the last decades, the high cost of requisite large-scale antenna array hinders widespread adoption of MMW imaging in practice. To tackle this challenge, we report a large-scale single-shot MMW imaging framework using sparse antenna array, achieving low-cost but high-fidelity security inspection under an interpretable learning scheme. We first collected extensive full-sampled MMW echoes to study the statistical ranking of each element in the large-scale array. These elements are then sampled based on the ranking, building the experimentally optimal sparse sampling strategy that reduces the cost of antenna array by up to one order of magnitude. Additionally, we derived an untrained interpretable learning scheme, which realizes robust and accurate image reconstruction from sparsely sampled echoes. Last, we developed a neural network for automatic object detection, and experimentally demonstrated successful detection of concealed centimeter-sized targets using 10% sparse array, whereas all the other contemporary approaches failed at the same sample sampling ratio. The performance of the reported technique presents higher than 50% superiority over the existing MMW imaging schemes on various metrics including precision, recall, and mAP50. With such strong detection ability and order-of-magnitude cost reduction, we anticipate that this technique provides a practical way for large-scale single-shot MMW imaging, and could advocate its further practical applications.
Under the domain shift, cross-domain few-shot object detection aims to adapt object detectors in the target domain with a few annotated target data. There exists two significant challenges: (1) Highly insufficient target domain data; (2) Potential over-adaptation and misleading caused by inappropriately amplified target samples without any restriction. To address these challenges, we propose an adaptive method consisting of two parts. First, we propose an adaptive optimization strategy to select augmented data similar to target samples rather than blindly increasing the amount. Specifically, we filter the augmented candidates which significantly deviate from the target feature distribution in the very beginning. Second, to further relieve the data limitation, we propose the multi-level domain-aware data augmentation to increase the diversity and rationality of augmented data, which exploits the cross-image foreground-background mixture. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance on multiple benchmarks.
In the area of near-field millimeter-wave imaging, the generalized sparse array synthesis (SAS) method is in great demand. The traditional methods usually employ the greedy algorithms, which may have the convergence problem. This paper proposes a convex optimization model for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) array design based on the compressive sensing (CS) approach. We generate a block shaped reference pattern, to be used as an optimizing target. The pattern occupies the entire imaging area of interest in order to involve the effect of each pixel into the optimization model. In MIMO scenarios, we can fix the transmit subarray and synthesize the receive subarray, and vice versa, or doing the synthesis sequentially. The problems associated with focusing, sidelobes suppression, and grating lobes suppression of the synthesized array are examined in details. Numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the synthesized sparse array can offer better image qualities than the sparse arrays with equally spaced or randomly spaced antennas with the same number of antenna elements.
Pre-trained language models have achieved state-of-the-art results in various Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. GPT-3 has shown that scaling up pre-trained language models can further exploit their enormous potential. A unified framework named ERNIE 3.0 was recently proposed for pre-training large-scale knowledge enhanced models and trained a model with 10 billion parameters. ERNIE 3.0 outperformed the state-of-the-art models on various NLP tasks. In order to explore the performance of scaling up ERNIE 3.0, we train a hundred-billion-parameter model called ERNIE 3.0 Titan with up to 260 billion parameters on the PaddlePaddle platform. Furthermore, we design a self-supervised adversarial loss and a controllable language modeling loss to make ERNIE 3.0 Titan generate credible and controllable texts. To reduce the computation overhead and carbon emission, we propose an online distillation framework for ERNIE 3.0 Titan, where the teacher model will teach students and train itself simultaneously. ERNIE 3.0 Titan is the largest Chinese dense pre-trained model so far. Empirical results show that the ERNIE 3.0 Titan outperforms the state-of-the-art models on 68 NLP datasets.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2107.02137
This paper proposes a polyline shaped array based system scheme, associated with mechanical scanning along the perpendicular direction of the array, for near-field millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging. Each section of the polyline is a chord of a circle with equal length. The polyline array, which can be realized as a monostatic array or a multistatic one, is capable of providing more observation angles than the linear or planar arrays. Further, we present the related three-dimensional (3-D) imaging algorithms based on a hybrid processing in the time domain and the spatial frequency domain. The nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) is utilized to improve the computational efficiency. Simulations and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in comparison with the back-projection (BP) algorithm.
Millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging has a wide prospect in application of concealed weapons detection. We propose a circular-arc multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) array scheme with uniformly spaced transmit and receive antennas along the horizontal-arc direction, while scanning along the vertical direction. The antenna beams of the circular-arc MIMO array can provide more uniform coverage of the imaging scene than those of the linear or planar MIMO arrays. Further, a near-field three-dimensional (3-D) imaging algorithm, based on the spatial frequency domain processing, is presented with analysis of sampling criteria and resolutions. Numerical simulations, as well as comparisons with the back-projection (BP) algorithm, are provided to show the efficacy of the proposed approach.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2101.08982
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) array based millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging has a tangible prospect in applications of concealed weapons detection. A near-field imaging algorithm based on wavenumber domain processing is proposed for a cylindrical MIMO array scheme with uniformly spaced transmit and receive antennas over both the vertical and horizontal-arc directions. The spectrum aliasing associated with the proposed MIMO array is analyzed through a zero-filling discrete-time Fourier transform. The analysis shows that an undersampled array can be used in recovering the MMW image by a wavenumber domain algorithm. The requirements for the antenna inter-element spacing of the MIMO array are delineated. Numerical simulations as well as comparisons with the backprojection (BP) algorithm are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
* 10 pages, 20 figures, paper submitted to IEEE Transactions on
Aerospace and Electronic Systems