Automated machine learning (AutoML) is a collection of techniques designed to automate the machine learning development process. While traditional AutoML approaches have been successfully applied in several critical steps of model development (e.g. hyperparameter optimization), there lacks a AutoML system that automates the entire end-to-end model production workflow. To fill this blank, we present AutoMMLab, a general-purpose LLM-empowered AutoML system that follows user's language instructions to automate the whole model production workflow for computer vision tasks. The proposed AutoMMLab system effectively employs LLMs as the bridge to connect AutoML and OpenMMLab community, empowering non-expert individuals to easily build task-specific models via a user-friendly language interface. Specifically, we propose RU-LLaMA to understand users' request and schedule the whole pipeline, and propose a novel LLM-based hyperparameter optimizer called HPO-LLaMA to effectively search for the optimal hyperparameters. Experiments show that our AutoMMLab system is versatile and covers a wide range of mainstream tasks, including classification, detection, segmentation and keypoint estimation. We further develop a new benchmark, called LAMP, for studying key components in the end-to-end prompt-based model training pipeline. Code, model, and data will be released.
Inspired by the outstanding zero-shot capability of vision language models (VLMs) in image classification tasks, open-vocabulary object detection has attracted increasing interest by distilling the broad VLM knowledge into detector training. However, most existing open-vocabulary detectors learn by aligning region embeddings with categorical labels (e.g., bicycle) only, disregarding the capability of VLMs on aligning visual embeddings with fine-grained text description of object parts (e.g., pedals and bells). This paper presents DVDet, a Descriptor-Enhanced Open Vocabulary Detector that introduces conditional context prompts and hierarchical textual descriptors that enable precise region-text alignment as well as open-vocabulary detection training in general. Specifically, the conditional context prompt transforms regional embeddings into image-like representations that can be directly integrated into general open vocabulary detection training. In addition, we introduce large language models as an interactive and implicit knowledge repository which enables iterative mining and refining visually oriented textual descriptors for precise region-text alignment. Extensive experiments over multiple large-scale benchmarks show that DVDet outperforms the state-of-the-art consistently by large margins.
Detecting objects accurately from a large or open vocabulary necessitates the vision-language alignment on region representations. However, learning such a region-text alignment by obtaining high-quality box annotations with text labels or descriptions is expensive and infeasible. In contrast, collecting image-text pairs is simpler but lacks precise object location information to associate regions with texts. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called Contrastive Language-Image Mosaic (CLIM), which leverages large-scale image-text pairs effectively for aligning region and text representations. CLIM combines multiple images into a mosaicked image and treats each image as a `pseudo region'. The feature of each pseudo region is extracted and trained to be similar to the corresponding text embedding while dissimilar from others by a contrastive loss, enabling the model to learn the region-text alignment without costly box annotations. As a generally applicable approach, CLIM consistently improves different open-vocabulary object detection methods that use caption supervision. Furthermore, CLIM can effectively enhance the region representation of vision-language models, thus providing stronger backbones for open-vocabulary object detectors. Our experimental results demonstrate that CLIM improves different baseline open-vocabulary object detectors by a large margin on both OV-COCO and OV-LVIS benchmarks. The code is available at https://github.com/wusize/CLIM.
The low-level spatial detail information and high-level semantic abstract information are both essential to the semantic segmentation task. The features extracted by the deep network can obtain rich semantic information, while a lot of spatial information is lost. However, how to recover spatial detail information effectively and fuse it with high-level semantics has not been well addressed so far. In this paper, we propose a new architecture based on Bilateral Segmentation Network (BiseNet) called Multi-scale Covariance Feature Fusion Network (MCFNet). Specifically, this network introduces a new feature refinement module and a new feature fusion module. Furthermore, a gating unit named L-Gate is proposed to filter out invalid information and fuse multi-scale features. We evaluate our proposed model on Cityscapes, CamVid datasets and compare it with the state-of-the-art methods. Extensive experiments show that our method achieves competitive success. On Cityscapes, we achieve 75.5% mIOU with a speed of 151.3 FPS.
Human-centric perception (e.g. pedetrian detection, segmentation, pose estimation, and attribute analysis) is a long-standing problem for computer vision. This paper introduces a unified and versatile framework (HQNet) for single-stage multi-person multi-task human-centric perception (HCP). Our approach centers on learning a unified human query representation, denoted as Human Query, which captures intricate instance-level features for individual persons and disentangles complex multi-person scenarios. Although different HCP tasks have been well-studied individually, single-stage multi-task learning of HCP tasks has not been fully exploited in the literature due to the absence of a comprehensive benchmark dataset. To address this gap, we propose COCO-UniHuman benchmark dataset to enable model development and comprehensive evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed method's state-of-the-art performance among multi-task HCP models and its competitive performance compared to task-specific HCP models. Moreover, our experiments underscore Human Query's adaptability to new HCP tasks, thus demonstrating its robust generalization capability. Codes and data will be publicly accessible.
Open-vocabulary dense prediction tasks including object detection and image segmentation have been advanced by the success of Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP). CLIP models, particularly those incorporating vision transformers (ViTs), have exhibited remarkable generalization ability in zero-shot image classification. However, when transferring the vision-language alignment of CLIP from global image representation to local region representation for the open-vocabulary dense prediction tasks, CLIP ViTs suffer from the domain shift from full images to local image regions. In this paper, we embark on an in-depth analysis of the region-language alignment in CLIP models, which is essential for downstream open-vocabulary dense prediction tasks. Subsequently, we propose an approach named CLIPSelf, which adapts the image-level recognition ability of CLIP ViT to local image regions without needing any region-text pairs. CLIPSelf empowers ViTs to distill itself by aligning a region representation extracted from its dense feature map with the image-level representation of the corresponding image crop. With the enhanced CLIP ViTs, we achieve new state-of-the-art performance on open-vocabulary object detection, semantic segmentation, and panoptic segmentation across various benchmarks. Models and code will be available at https://github.com/wusize/CLIPSelf.
Domain generalization (DG) aims to learn domain-generalizable models from one or multiple source domains that can perform well in unseen target domains. Despite its recent progress, most existing work suffers from the misalignment between the difficulty level of training samples and the capability of contemporarily trained models, leading to over-fitting or under-fitting in the trained generalization model. We design MoDify, a Momentum Difficulty framework that tackles the misalignment by balancing the seesaw between the model's capability and the samples' difficulties along the training process. MoDify consists of two novel designs that collaborate to fight against the misalignment while learning domain-generalizable models. The first is MoDify-based Data Augmentation which exploits an RGB Shuffle technique to generate difficulty-aware training samples on the fly. The second is MoDify-based Network Optimization which dynamically schedules the training samples for balanced and smooth learning with appropriate difficulty. Without bells and whistles, a simple implementation of MoDify achieves superior performance across multiple benchmarks. In addition, MoDify can complement existing methods as a plug-in, and it is generic and can work for different visual recognition tasks.
Multi-Label Image Recognition (MLIR) is a challenging task that aims to predict multiple object labels in a single image while modeling the complex relationships between labels and image regions. Although convolutional neural networks and vision transformers have succeeded in processing images as regular grids of pixels or patches, these representations are sub-optimal for capturing irregular and discontinuous regions of interest. In this work, we present the first fully graph convolutional model, Group K-nearest neighbor based Graph convolutional Network (GKGNet), which models the connections between semantic label embeddings and image patches in a flexible and unified graph structure. To address the scale variance of different objects and to capture information from multiple perspectives, we propose the Group KGCN module for dynamic graph construction and message passing. Our experiments demonstrate that GKGNet achieves state-of-the-art performance with significantly lower computational costs on the challenging multi-label datasets, \ie MS-COCO and VOC2007 datasets. We will release the code and models to facilitate future research in this area.
Without manually annotated identities, unsupervised multi-object trackers are inferior to learning reliable feature embeddings. It causes the similarity-based inter-frame association stage also be error-prone, where an uncertainty problem arises. The frame-by-frame accumulated uncertainty prevents trackers from learning the consistent feature embedding against time variation. To avoid this uncertainty problem, recent self-supervised techniques are adopted, whereas they failed to capture temporal relations. The interframe uncertainty still exists. In fact, this paper argues that though the uncertainty problem is inevitable, it is possible to leverage the uncertainty itself to improve the learned consistency in turn. Specifically, an uncertainty-based metric is developed to verify and rectify the risky associations. The resulting accurate pseudo-tracklets boost learning the feature consistency. And accurate tracklets can incorporate temporal information into spatial transformation. This paper proposes a tracklet-guided augmentation strategy to simulate tracklets' motion, which adopts a hierarchical uncertainty-based sampling mechanism for hard sample mining. The ultimate unsupervised MOT framework, namely U2MOT, is proven effective on MOT-Challenges and VisDrone-MOT benchmark. U2MOT achieves a SOTA performance among the published supervised and unsupervised trackers.
* Accepted by International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) 2023
Traditional domain adaptation assumes the same vocabulary across source and target domains, which often struggles with limited transfer flexibility and efficiency while handling target domains with different vocabularies. Inspired by recent vision-language models (VLMs) that enable open-vocabulary visual recognition by reasoning on both images and texts, we study open-vocabulary domain adaptation (OVDA), a new unsupervised domain adaptation framework that positions a pre-trained VLM as the source model and transfers it towards arbitrary unlabelled target domains. To this end, we design a Prompt Ensemble Self-training (PEST) technique that exploits the synergy between vision and language to mitigate the domain discrepancies in image and text distributions simultaneously. Specifically, PEST makes use of the complementary property of multiple prompts within and across vision and language modalities, which enables joint exploitation of vision and language information and effective learning of image-text correspondences in the unlabelled target domains. Additionally, PEST captures temporal information via temporal prompt ensemble which helps memorize previously learnt target information. Extensive experiments show that PEST outperforms the state-of-the-art consistently across 10 image recognition tasks.