Fairness of recommender systems (RS) has attracted increasing attention recently. Based on the involved stakeholders, the fairness of RS can be divided into user fairness, item fairness, and two-sided fairness which considers both user and item fairness simultaneously. However, we argue that the intersectional two-sided unfairness may still exist even if the RS is two-sided fair, which is observed and shown by empirical studies on real-world data in this paper, and has not been well-studied previously. To mitigate this problem, we propose a novel approach called Intersectional Two-sided Fairness Recommendation (ITFR). Our method utilizes a sharpness-aware loss to perceive disadvantaged groups, and then uses collaborative loss balance to develop consistent distinguishing abilities for different intersectional groups. Additionally, predicted score normalization is leveraged to align positive predicted scores to fairly treat positives in different intersectional groups. Extensive experiments and analyses on three public datasets show that our proposed approach effectively alleviates the intersectional two-sided unfairness and consistently outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods.
Conversion rate prediction is critical to many online applications such as digital display advertising. To capture dynamic data distribution, industrial systems often require retraining models on recent data daily or weekly. However, the delay of conversion behavior usually leads to incorrect labeling, which is called delayed feedback problem. Existing work may fail to introduce the correct information about false negative samples due to data sparsity and dynamic data distribution. To directly introduce the correct feedback label information, we propose an Unbiased delayed feedback Label Correction framework (ULC), which uses an auxiliary model to correct labels for observed negative feedback samples. Firstly, we theoretically prove that the label-corrected loss is an unbiased estimate of the oracle loss using true labels. Then, as there are no ready training data for label correction, counterfactual labeling is used to construct artificial training data. Furthermore, since counterfactual labeling utilizes only partial training data, we design an embedding-based alternative training method to enhance performance. Comparative experiments on both public and private datasets and detailed analyses show that our proposed approach effectively alleviates the delayed feedback problem and consistently outperforms the previous state-of-the-art methods.
Ranking ensemble is a critical component in real recommender systems. When a user visits a platform, the system will prepare several item lists, each of which is generally from a single behavior objective recommendation model. As multiple behavior intents, e.g., both clicking and buying some specific item category, are commonly concurrent in a user visit, it is necessary to integrate multiple single-objective ranking lists into one. However, previous work on rank aggregation mainly focused on fusing homogeneous item lists with the same objective while ignoring ensemble of heterogeneous lists ranked with different objectives with various user intents. In this paper, we treat a user's possible behaviors and the potential interacting item categories as the user's intent. And we aim to study how to fuse candidate item lists generated from different objectives aware of user intents. To address such a task, we propose an Intent-aware ranking Ensemble Learning~(IntEL) model to fuse multiple single-objective item lists with various user intents, in which item-level personalized weights are learned. Furthermore, we theoretically prove the effectiveness of IntEL with point-wise, pair-wise, and list-wise loss functions via error-ambiguity decomposition. Experiments on two large-scale real-world datasets also show significant improvements of IntEL on multiple behavior objectives simultaneously compared to previous ranking ensemble models.
* Accepted at the 46th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research
and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR 2023)
Most modern recommender systems predict users preferences with two components: user and item embedding learning, followed by the user-item interaction modeling. By utilizing the auxiliary review information accompanied with user ratings, many of the existing review-based recommendation models enriched user/item embedding learning ability with historical reviews or better modeled user-item interactions with the help of available user-item target reviews. Though significant progress has been made, we argue that current solutions for review-based recommendation suffer from two drawbacks. First, as review-based recommendation can be naturally formed as a user-item bipartite graph with edge features from corresponding user-item reviews, how to better exploit this unique graph structure for recommendation? Second, while most current models suffer from limited user behaviors, can we exploit the unique self-supervised signals in the review-aware graph to guide two recommendation components better? To this end, in this paper, we propose a novel Review-aware Graph Contrastive Learning (RGCL) framework for review-based recommendation. Specifically, we first construct a review-aware user-item graph with feature-enhanced edges from reviews, where each edge feature is composed of both the user-item rating and the corresponding review semantics. This graph with feature-enhanced edges can help attentively learn each neighbor node weight for user and item representation learning. After that, we design two additional contrastive learning tasks (i.e., Node Discrimination and Edge Discrimination) to provide self-supervised signals for the two components in recommendation process. Finally, extensive experiments over five benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of our proposed RGCL compared to the state-of-the-art baselines.
News recommendation aims to help online news platform users find their preferred news articles. Existing news recommendation methods usually learn models from historical user behaviors on news. However, these behaviors are usually biased on news providers. Models trained on biased user data may capture and even amplify the biases on news providers, and are unfair for some minority news providers. In this paper, we propose a provider fairness-aware news recommendation framework (named ProFairRec), which can learn news recommendation models fair for different news providers from biased user data. The core idea of ProFairRec is to learn provider-fair news representations and provider-fair user representations to achieve provider fairness. To learn provider-fair representations from biased data, we employ provider-biased representations to inherit provider bias from data. Provider-fair and -biased news representations are learned from news content and provider IDs respectively, which are further aggregated to build fair and biased user representations based on user click history. All of these representations are used in model training while only fair representations are used for user-news matching to achieve fair news recommendation. Besides, we propose an adversarial learning task on news provider discrimination to prevent provider-fair news representation from encoding provider bias. We also propose an orthogonal regularization on provider-fair and -biased representations to better reduce provider bias in provider-fair representations. Moreover, ProFairRec is a general framework and can be applied to different news recommendation methods. Extensive experiments on a public dataset verify that our ProFairRec approach can effectively improve the provider fairness of many existing methods and meanwhile maintain their recommendation accuracy.
Social recommendation has emerged to leverage social connections among users for predicting users' unknown preferences, which could alleviate the data sparsity issue in collaborative filtering based recommendation. Early approaches relied on utilizing each user's first-order social neighbors' interests for better user modeling and failed to model the social influence diffusion process from the global social network structure. Recently, we propose a preliminary work of a neural influence diffusion network (i.e., DiffNet) for social recommendation (Diffnet), which models the recursive social diffusion process to capture the higher-order relationships for each user. However, we argue that, as users play a central role in both user-user social network and user-item interest network, only modeling the influence diffusion process in the social network would neglect the users' latent collaborative interests in the user-item interest network. In this paper, we propose DiffNet++, an improved algorithm of DiffNet that models the neural influence diffusion and interest diffusion in a unified framework. By reformulating the social recommendation as a heterogeneous graph with social network and interest network as input, DiffNet++ advances DiffNet by injecting these two network information for user embedding learning at the same time. This is achieved by iteratively aggregating each user's embedding from three aspects: the user's previous embedding, the influence aggregation of social neighbors from the social network, and the interest aggregation of item neighbors from the user-item interest network. Furthermore, we design a multi-level attention network that learns how to attentively aggregate user embeddings from these three aspects. Finally, extensive experimental results on two real-world datasets clearly show the effectiveness of our proposed model.