Current diffusion-based video editing primarily focuses on structure-preserved editing by utilizing various dense correspondences to ensure temporal consistency and motion alignment. However, these approaches are often ineffective when the target edit involves a shape change. To embark on video editing with shape change, we explore customized video subject swapping in this work, where we aim to replace the main subject in a source video with a target subject having a distinct identity and potentially different shape. In contrast to previous methods that rely on dense correspondences, we introduce the VideoSwap framework that exploits semantic point correspondences, inspired by our observation that only a small number of semantic points are necessary to align the subject's motion trajectory and modify its shape. We also introduce various user-point interactions (\eg, removing points and dragging points) to address various semantic point correspondence. Extensive experiments demonstrate state-of-the-art video subject swapping results across a variety of real-world videos.
We introduce Style Tailoring, a recipe to finetune Latent Diffusion Models (LDMs) in a distinct domain with high visual quality, prompt alignment and scene diversity. We choose sticker image generation as the target domain, as the images significantly differ from photorealistic samples typically generated by large-scale LDMs. We start with a competent text-to-image model, like Emu, and show that relying on prompt engineering with a photorealistic model to generate stickers leads to poor prompt alignment and scene diversity. To overcome these drawbacks, we first finetune Emu on millions of sticker-like images collected using weak supervision to elicit diversity. Next, we curate human-in-the-loop (HITL) Alignment and Style datasets from model generations, and finetune to improve prompt alignment and style alignment respectively. Sequential finetuning on these datasets poses a tradeoff between better style alignment and prompt alignment gains. To address this tradeoff, we propose a novel fine-tuning method called Style Tailoring, which jointly fits the content and style distribution and achieves best tradeoff. Evaluation results show our method improves visual quality by 14%, prompt alignment by 16.2% and scene diversity by 15.3%, compared to prompt engineering the base Emu model for stickers generation.
We propose attribute-aware multimodal entity linking, where the input is a mention described with a text and image, and the goal is to predict the corresponding target entity from a multimodal knowledge base (KB) where each entity is also described with a text description, a visual image and a set of attributes and values. To support this research, we construct AMELI, a large-scale dataset consisting of 18,472 reviews and 35,598 products. To establish baseline performance on AMELI, we experiment with the current state-of-the-art multimodal entity linking approaches and our enhanced attribute-aware model and demonstrate the importance of incorporating the attribute information into the entity linking process. To be best of our knowledge, we are the first to build benchmark dataset and solutions for the attribute-aware multimodal entity linking task. Datasets and codes will be made publicly available.
The abundance of instructional videos and their narrations over the Internet offers an exciting avenue for understanding procedural activities. In this work, we propose to learn video representation that encodes both action steps and their temporal ordering, based on a large-scale dataset of web instructional videos and their narrations, without using human annotations. Our method jointly learns a video representation to encode individual step concepts, and a deep probabilistic model to capture both temporal dependencies and immense individual variations in the step ordering. We empirically demonstrate that learning temporal ordering not only enables new capabilities for procedure reasoning, but also reinforces the recognition of individual steps. Our model significantly advances the state-of-the-art results on step classification (+2.8% / +3.3% on COIN / EPIC-Kitchens) and step forecasting (+7.4% on COIN). Moreover, our model attains promising results in zero-shot inference for step classification and forecasting, as well as in predicting diverse and plausible steps for incomplete procedures. Our code is available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/ProcedureVRL.
Given the enormous number of instructional videos available online, learning a diverse array of multi-step task models from videos is an appealing goal. We introduce a new pre-trained video model, VideoTaskformer, focused on representing the semantics and structure of instructional videos. We pre-train VideoTaskformer using a simple and effective objective: predicting weakly supervised textual labels for steps that are randomly masked out from an instructional video (masked step modeling). Compared to prior work which learns step representations locally, our approach involves learning them globally, leveraging video of the entire surrounding task as context. From these learned representations, we can verify if an unseen video correctly executes a given task, as well as forecast which steps are likely to be taken after a given step. We introduce two new benchmarks for detecting mistakes in instructional videos, to verify if there is an anomalous step and if steps are executed in the right order. We also introduce a long-term forecasting benchmark, where the goal is to predict long-range future steps from a given step. Our method outperforms previous baselines on these tasks, and we believe the tasks will be a valuable way for the community to measure the quality of step representations. Additionally, we evaluate VideoTaskformer on 3 existing benchmarks -- procedural activity recognition, step classification, and step forecasting -- and demonstrate on each that our method outperforms existing baselines and achieves new state-of-the-art performance.
In the fashion domain, there exists a variety of vision-and-language (V+L) tasks, including cross-modal retrieval, text-guided image retrieval, multi-modal classification, and image captioning. They differ drastically in each individual input/output format and dataset size. It has been common to design a task-specific model and fine-tune it independently from a pre-trained V+L model (e.g., CLIP). This results in parameter inefficiency and inability to exploit inter-task relatedness. To address such issues, we propose a novel FAshion-focused Multi-task Efficient learning method for Vision-and-Language tasks (FAME-ViL) in this work. Compared with existing approaches, FAME-ViL applies a single model for multiple heterogeneous fashion tasks, therefore being much more parameter-efficient. It is enabled by two novel components: (1) a task-versatile architecture with cross-attention adapters and task-specific adapters integrated into a unified V+L model, and (2) a stable and effective multi-task training strategy that supports learning from heterogeneous data and prevents negative transfer. Extensive experiments on four fashion tasks show that our FAME-ViL can save 61.5% of parameters over alternatives, while significantly outperforming the conventional independently trained single-task models. Code is available at https://github.com/BrandonHanx/FAME-ViL.
Semi-supervised learning aims to train a model using limited labels. State-of-the-art semi-supervised methods for image classification such as PAWS rely on self-supervised representations learned with large-scale unlabeled but curated data. However, PAWS is often less effective when using real-world unlabeled data that is uncurated, e.g., contains out-of-class data. We propose RoPAWS, a robust extension of PAWS that can work with real-world unlabeled data. We first reinterpret PAWS as a generative classifier that models densities using kernel density estimation. From this probabilistic perspective, we calibrate its prediction based on the densities of labeled and unlabeled data, which leads to a simple closed-form solution from the Bayes' rule. We demonstrate that RoPAWS significantly improves PAWS for uncurated Semi-iNat by +5.3% and curated ImageNet by +0.4%.
Embedding-based Retrieval (EBR) in e-commerce search is a powerful search retrieval technique to address semantic matches between search queries and products. However, commercial search engines like Facebook Marketplace Search are complex multi-stage systems optimized for multiple business objectives. At Facebook Marketplace, search retrieval focuses on matching search queries with relevant products, while search ranking puts more emphasis on contextual signals to up-rank the more engaging products. As a result, the end-to-end searcher experience is a function of both relevance and engagement, and the interaction between different stages of the system. This presents challenges to EBR systems in order to optimize for better searcher experiences. In this paper we presents Que2Engage, a search EBR system built towards bridging the gap between retrieval and ranking for end-to-end optimizations. Que2Engage takes a multimodal & multitask approach to infuse contextual information into the retrieval stage and to balance different business objectives. We show the effectiveness of our approach via a multitask evaluation framework and thorough baseline comparisons and ablation studies. Que2Engage is deployed on Facebook Marketplace Search and shows significant improvements in searcher engagement in two weeks of A/B testing.
Large vision-language models are generally applicable to many downstream tasks, but come at an exorbitant training cost that only large institutions can afford. This paper trades generality for efficiency and presents Curation in Training (CiT), a simple and efficient vision-text learning algorithm that couples a data objective into training. CiT automatically yields quality data to speed-up contrastive image-text training and alleviates the need for an offline data filtering pipeline, allowing broad data sources (including raw image-text pairs from the web). CiT contains two loops: an outer loop curating the training data and an inner loop consuming the curated training data. The text encoder connects the two loops. Given metadata for tasks of interest, e.g., class names, and a large pool of image-text pairs, CiT alternatively selects relevant training data from the pool by measuring the similarity of their text embeddings and embeddings of the metadata. In our experiments, we observe that CiT can speed up training by over an order of magnitude, especially if the raw data size is large.
Generating a video given the first several static frames is challenging as it anticipates reasonable future frames with temporal coherence. Besides video prediction, the ability to rewind from the last frame or infilling between the head and tail is also crucial, but they have rarely been explored for video completion. Since there could be different outcomes from the hints of just a few frames, a system that can follow natural language to perform video completion may significantly improve controllability. Inspired by this, we introduce a novel task, text-guided video completion (TVC), which requests the model to generate a video from partial frames guided by an instruction. We then propose Multimodal Masked Video Generation (MMVG) to address this TVC task. During training, MMVG discretizes the video frames into visual tokens and masks most of them to perform video completion from any time point. At inference time, a single MMVG model can address all 3 cases of TVC, including video prediction, rewind, and infilling, by applying corresponding masking conditions. We evaluate MMVG in various video scenarios, including egocentric, animation, and gaming. Extensive experimental results indicate that MMVG is effective in generating high-quality visual appearances with text guidance for TVC.