Complex Query Answering (CQA) is a challenge task of Knowledge Graph (KG). Due to the incompleteness of KGs, query embedding (QE) methods have been proposed to encode queries and entities into the same embedding space, and treat logical operators as neural set operators to obtain answers. However, these methods train KG embeddings and neural set operators concurrently on both simple (one-hop) and complex (multi-hop and logical) queries, which causes performance degradation on simple queries and low training efficiency. In this paper, we propose Query to Triple (Q2T), a novel approach that decouples the training for simple and complex queries. Q2T divides the training into two stages: (1) Pre-training a neural link predictor on simple queries to predict tail entities based on the head entity and relation. (2) Training a query encoder on complex queries to encode diverse complex queries into a unified triple form that can be efficiently solved by the pretrained neural link predictor. Our proposed Q2T is not only efficient to train, but also modular, thus easily adaptable to various neural link predictors that have been studied well. Extensive experiments demonstrate that, even without explicit modeling for neural set operators, Q2T still achieves state-of-the-art performance on diverse complex queries over three public benchmarks.
Entity alignment (EA) aims to find the equivalent entity pairs between different knowledge graphs (KGs), which is crucial to promote knowledge fusion. With the wide use of temporal knowledge graphs (TKGs), time-aware EA (TEA) methods appear to enhance EA. Existing TEA models are based on Graph Neural Networks (GNN) and achieve state-of-the-art (SOTA) performance, but it is difficult to transfer them to large-scale TKGs due to the scalability issue of GNN. In this paper, we propose an effective and efficient non-neural EA framework between TKGs, namely LightTEA, which consists of four essential components: (1) Two-aspect Three-view Label Propagation, (2) Sparse Similarity with Temporal Constraints, (3) Sinkhorn Operator, and (4) Temporal Iterative Learning. All of these modules work together to improve the performance of EA while reducing the time consumption of the model. Extensive experiments on public datasets indicate that our proposed model significantly outperforms the SOTA methods for EA between TKGs, and the time consumed by LightTEA is only dozens of seconds at most, no more than 10% of the most efficient TEA method.
Entity alignment (EA) aims to find entities in different knowledge graphs (KGs) that refer to the same object in the real world. Recent studies incorporate temporal information to augment the representations of KGs. The existing methods for EA between temporal KGs (TKGs) utilize a time-aware attention mechanism to incorporate relational and temporal information into entity embeddings. The approaches outperform the previous methods by using temporal information. However, we believe that it is not necessary to learn the embeddings of temporal information in KGs since most TKGs have uniform temporal representations. Therefore, we propose a simple graph neural network (GNN) model combined with a temporal information matching mechanism, which achieves better performance with less time and fewer parameters. Furthermore, since alignment seeds are difficult to label in real-world applications, we also propose a method to generate unsupervised alignment seeds via the temporal information of TKG. Extensive experiments on public datasets indicate that our supervised method significantly outperforms the previous methods and the unsupervised one has competitive performance.