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Guannan Zhang

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MultiLoRA: Democratizing LoRA for Better Multi-Task Learning

Nov 20, 2023
Yiming Wang, Yu Lin, Xiaodong Zeng, Guannan Zhang

LoRA achieves remarkable resource efficiency and comparable performance when adapting LLMs for specific tasks. Since ChatGPT demonstrated superior performance on various tasks, there has been a growing desire to adapt one model for all tasks. However, the explicit low-rank of LoRA limits the adaptation performance in complex multi-task scenarios. LoRA is dominated by a small number of top singular vectors while fine-tuning decomposes into a set of less important unitary transforms. In this paper, we propose MultiLoRA for better multi-task adaptation by reducing the dominance of top singular vectors observed in LoRA. MultiLoRA scales LoRA modules horizontally and change parameter initialization of adaptation matrices to reduce parameter dependency, thus yields more balanced unitary subspaces. We unprecedentedly construct specialized training data by mixing datasets of instruction follow, natural language understanding, world knowledge, to cover semantically and syntactically different samples. With only 2.5% of additional parameters, MultiLoRA outperforms single LoRA counterparts and fine-tuning on multiple benchmarks and model scales. Further investigation into weight update matrices of MultiLoRA exhibits reduced dependency on top singular vectors and more democratic unitary transform contributions.

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Think-in-Memory: Recalling and Post-thinking Enable LLMs with Long-Term Memory

Nov 15, 2023
Lei Liu, Xiaoyan Yang, Yue Shen, Binbin Hu, Zhiqiang Zhang, Jinjie Gu, Guannan Zhang

Memory-augmented Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable performance in long-term human-machine interactions, which basically relies on iterative recalling and reasoning of history to generate high-quality responses. However, such repeated recall-reason steps easily produce biased thoughts, \textit{i.e.}, inconsistent reasoning results when recalling the same history for different questions. On the contrary, humans can keep thoughts in the memory and recall them without repeated reasoning. Motivated by this human capability, we propose a novel memory mechanism called TiM (Think-in-Memory) that enables LLMs to maintain an evolved memory for storing historical thoughts along the conversation stream. The TiM framework consists of two crucial stages: (1) before generating a response, a LLM agent recalls relevant thoughts from memory, and (2) after generating a response, the LLM agent post-thinks and incorporates both historical and new thoughts to update the memory. Thus, TiM can eliminate the issue of repeated reasoning by saving the post-thinking thoughts as the history. Besides, we formulate the basic principles to organize the thoughts in memory based on the well-established operations, (\textit{i.e.}, insert, forget, and merge operations), allowing for dynamic updates and evolution of the thoughts. Furthermore, we introduce Locality-Sensitive Hashing into TiM to achieve efficient retrieval for the long-term conversations. We conduct qualitative and quantitative experiments on real-world and simulated dialogues covering a wide range of topics, demonstrating that equipping existing LLMs with TiM significantly enhances their performance in generating responses for long-term interactions.

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On the Opportunities of Green Computing: A Survey

Nov 09, 2023
You Zhou, Xiujing Lin, Xiang Zhang, Maolin Wang, Gangwei Jiang, Huakang Lu, Yupeng Wu, Kai Zhang, Zhe Yang, Kehang Wang, Yongduo Sui, Fengwei Jia, Zuoli Tang, Yao Zhao, Hongxuan Zhang, Tiannuo Yang, Weibo Chen, Yunong Mao, Yi Li, De Bao, Yu Li, Hongrui Liao, Ting Liu, Jingwen Liu, Jinchi Guo, Xiangyu Zhao, Ying WEI, Hong Qian, Qi Liu, Xiang Wang, Wai Kin, Chan, Chenliang Li, Yusen Li, Shiyu Yang, Jining Yan, Chao Mou, Shuai Han, Wuxia Jin, Guannan Zhang, Xiaodong Zeng

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) has achieved significant advancements in technology and research with the development over several decades, and is widely used in many areas including computing vision, natural language processing, time-series analysis, speech synthesis, etc. During the age of deep learning, especially with the arise of Large Language Models, a large majority of researchers' attention is paid on pursuing new state-of-the-art (SOTA) results, resulting in ever increasing of model size and computational complexity. The needs for high computing power brings higher carbon emission and undermines research fairness by preventing small or medium-sized research institutions and companies with limited funding in participating in research. To tackle the challenges of computing resources and environmental impact of AI, Green Computing has become a hot research topic. In this survey, we give a systematic overview of the technologies used in Green Computing. We propose the framework of Green Computing and devide it into four key components: (1) Measures of Greenness, (2) Energy-Efficient AI, (3) Energy-Efficient Computing Systems and (4) AI Use Cases for Sustainability. For each components, we discuss the research progress made and the commonly used techniques to optimize the AI efficiency. We conclude that this new research direction has the potential to address the conflicts between resource constraints and AI development. We encourage more researchers to put attention on this direction and make AI more environmental friendly.

* 113 pages, 18 figures 
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Diffusion-Model-Assisted Supervised Learning of Generative Models for Density Estimation

Oct 22, 2023
Yanfang Liu, Minglei Yang, Zezhong Zhang, Feng Bao, Yanzhao Cao, Guannan Zhang

We present a supervised learning framework of training generative models for density estimation. Generative models, including generative adversarial networks, normalizing flows, variational auto-encoders, are usually considered as unsupervised learning models, because labeled data are usually unavailable for training. Despite the success of the generative models, there are several issues with the unsupervised training, e.g., requirement of reversible architectures, vanishing gradients, and training instability. To enable supervised learning in generative models, we utilize the score-based diffusion model to generate labeled data. Unlike existing diffusion models that train neural networks to learn the score function, we develop a training-free score estimation method. This approach uses mini-batch-based Monte Carlo estimators to directly approximate the score function at any spatial-temporal location in solving an ordinary differential equation (ODE), corresponding to the reverse-time stochastic differential equation (SDE). This approach can offer both high accuracy and substantial time savings in neural network training. Once the labeled data are generated, we can train a simple fully connected neural network to learn the generative model in the supervised manner. Compared with existing normalizing flow models, our method does not require to use reversible neural networks and avoids the computation of the Jacobian matrix. Compared with existing diffusion models, our method does not need to solve the reverse-time SDE to generate new samples. As a result, the sampling efficiency is significantly improved. We demonstrate the performance of our method by applying it to a set of 2D datasets as well as real data from the UCI repository.

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An Unified Search and Recommendation Foundation Model for Cold-Start Scenario

Sep 16, 2023
Yuqi Gong, Xichen Ding, Yehui Su, Kaiming Shen, Zhongyi Liu, Guannan Zhang

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In modern commercial search engines and recommendation systems, data from multiple domains is available to jointly train the multi-domain model. Traditional methods train multi-domain models in the multi-task setting, with shared parameters to learn the similarity of multiple tasks, and task-specific parameters to learn the divergence of features, labels, and sample distributions of individual tasks. With the development of large language models, LLM can extract global domain-invariant text features that serve both search and recommendation tasks. We propose a novel framework called S\&R Multi-Domain Foundation, which uses LLM to extract domain invariant features, and Aspect Gating Fusion to merge the ID feature, domain invariant text features and task-specific heterogeneous sparse features to obtain the representations of query and item. Additionally, samples from multiple search and recommendation scenarios are trained jointly with Domain Adaptive Multi-Task module to obtain the multi-domain foundation model. We apply the S\&R Multi-Domain foundation model to cold start scenarios in the pretrain-finetune manner, which achieves better performance than other SOTA transfer learning methods. The S\&R Multi-Domain Foundation model has been successfully deployed in Alipay Mobile Application's online services, such as content query recommendation and service card recommendation, etc.

* CIKM 2023,6 pages 
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Marketing Budget Allocation with Offline Constrained Deep Reinforcement Learning

Sep 06, 2023
Tianchi Cai, Jiyan Jiang, Wenpeng Zhang, Shiji Zhou, Xierui Song, Li Yu, Lihong Gu, Xiaodong Zeng, Jinjie Gu, Guannan Zhang

We study the budget allocation problem in online marketing campaigns that utilize previously collected offline data. We first discuss the long-term effect of optimizing marketing budget allocation decisions in the offline setting. To overcome the challenge, we propose a novel game-theoretic offline value-based reinforcement learning method using mixed policies. The proposed method reduces the need to store infinitely many policies in previous methods to only constantly many policies, which achieves nearly optimal policy efficiency, making it practical and favorable for industrial usage. We further show that this method is guaranteed to converge to the optimal policy, which cannot be achieved by previous value-based reinforcement learning methods for marketing budget allocation. Our experiments on a large-scale marketing campaign with tens-of-millions users and more than one billion budget verify the theoretical results and show that the proposed method outperforms various baseline methods. The proposed method has been successfully deployed to serve all the traffic of this marketing campaign.

* WSDM 23, Best Paper Candidate 
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An Ensemble Score Filter for Tracking High-Dimensional Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

Sep 02, 2023
Feng Bao, Zezhong Zhang, Guannan Zhang

We propose an ensemble score filter (EnSF) for solving high-dimensional nonlinear filtering problems with superior accuracy. A major drawback of existing filtering methods, e.g., particle filters or ensemble Kalman filters, is the low accuracy in handling high-dimensional and highly nonlinear problems. EnSF attacks this challenge by exploiting the score-based diffusion model, defined in a pseudo-temporal domain, to characterizing the evolution of the filtering density. EnSF stores the information of the recursively updated filtering density function in the score function, in stead of storing the information in a set of finite Monte Carlo samples (used in particle filters and ensemble Kalman filters). Unlike existing diffusion models that train neural networks to approximate the score function, we develop a training-free score estimation that uses mini-batch-based Monte Carlo estimator to directly approximate the score function at any pseudo-spatial-temporal location, which provides sufficient accuracy in solving high-dimensional nonlinear problems as well as saves tremendous amount of time spent on training neural networks. Another essential aspect of EnSF is its analytical update step, gradually incorporating data information into the score function, which is crucial in mitigating the degeneracy issue faced when dealing with very high-dimensional nonlinear filtering problems. High-dimensional Lorenz systems are used to demonstrate the performance of our method. EnSF provides surprisingly impressive performance in reliably tracking extremely high-dimensional Lorenz systems (up to 1,000,000 dimension) with highly nonlinear observation processes, which is a well-known challenging problem for existing filtering methods.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2306.09282 
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AntM$^{2}$C: A Large Scale Dataset For Multi-Scenario Multi-Modal CTR Prediction

Aug 31, 2023
Zhaoxin Huan, Ke Ding, Ang Li, Xiaolu Zhang, Xu Min, Yong He, Liang Zhang, Jun Zhou, Linjian Mo, Jinjie Gu, Zhongyi Liu, Wenliang Zhong, Guannan Zhang

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Click-through rate (CTR) prediction is a crucial issue in recommendation systems. There has been an emergence of various public CTR datasets. However, existing datasets primarily suffer from the following limitations. Firstly, users generally click different types of items from multiple scenarios, and modeling from multiple scenarios can provide a more comprehensive understanding of users. Existing datasets only include data for the same type of items from a single scenario. Secondly, multi-modal features are essential in multi-scenario prediction as they address the issue of inconsistent ID encoding between different scenarios. The existing datasets are based on ID features and lack multi-modal features. Third, a large-scale dataset can provide a more reliable evaluation of models, fully reflecting the performance differences between models. The scale of existing datasets is around 100 million, which is relatively small compared to the real-world CTR prediction. To address these limitations, we propose AntM$^{2}$C, a Multi-Scenario Multi-Modal CTR dataset based on industrial data from Alipay. Specifically, AntM$^{2}$C provides the following advantages: 1) It covers CTR data of 5 different types of items, providing insights into the preferences of users for different items, including advertisements, vouchers, mini-programs, contents, and videos. 2) Apart from ID-based features, AntM$^{2}$C also provides 2 multi-modal features, raw text and image features, which can effectively establish connections between items with different IDs. 3) AntM$^{2}$C provides 1 billion CTR data with 200 features, including 200 million users and 6 million items. It is currently the largest-scale CTR dataset available. Based on AntM$^{2}$C, we construct several typical CTR tasks and provide comparisons with baseline methods. The dataset homepage is available at

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