This paper shows the effectiveness of 2D backbone scaling and pretraining for pillar-based 3D object detectors. Pillar-based methods mainly employ randomly initialized 2D convolution neural network (ConvNet) for feature extraction and fail to enjoy the benefits from the backbone scaling and pretraining in the image domain. To show the scaling-up capacity in point clouds, we introduce the dense ConvNet pretrained on large-scale image datasets (e.g., ImageNet) as the 2D backbone of pillar-based detectors. The ConvNets are adaptively designed based on the model size according to the specific features of point clouds, such as sparsity and irregularity. Equipped with the pretrained ConvNets, our proposed pillar-based detector, termed PillarNeSt, outperforms the existing 3D object detectors by a large margin on the nuScenes and Argoversev2 datasets. Our code shall be released upon acceptance.
In this paper, we propose a robust 3D detector, named Cross Modal Transformer (CMT), for end-to-end 3D multi-modal detection. Without explicit view transformation, CMT takes the image and point clouds tokens as inputs and directly outputs accurate 3D bounding boxes. The spatial alignment of multi-modal tokens is performed implicitly, by encoding the 3D points into multi-modal features. The core design of CMT is quite simple while its performance is impressive. CMT obtains 73.0% NDS on nuScenes benchmark. Moreover, CMT has a strong robustness even if the LiDAR is missing. Code will be released at https://github.com/junjie18/CMT.
In this paper, we propose PETRv2, a unified framework for 3D perception from multi-view images. Based on PETR, PETRv2 explores the effectiveness of temporal modeling, which utilizes the temporal information of previous frames to boost 3D object detection. More specifically, we extend the 3D position embedding (3D PE) in PETR for temporal modeling. The 3D PE achieves the temporal alignment on object position of different frames. A feature-guided position encoder is further introduced to improve the data adaptability of 3D PE. To support for high-quality BEV segmentation, PETRv2 provides a simply yet effective solution by adding a set of segmentation queries. Each segmentation query is responsible for segmenting one specific patch of BEV map. PETRv2 achieves state-of-the-art performance on 3D object detection and BEV segmentation. Detailed robustness analysis is also conducted on PETR framework. We hope PETRv2 can serve as a unified framework for 3D perception.
Transformer has shown great successes in natural language processing, computer vision, and audio processing. As one of its core components, the softmax attention helps to capture long-range dependencies yet prohibits its scale-up due to the quadratic space and time complexity to the sequence length. Kernel methods are often adopted to reduce the complexity by approximating the softmax operator. Nevertheless, due to the approximation errors, their performances vary in different tasks/corpus and suffer crucial performance drops when compared with the vanilla softmax attention. In this paper, we propose a linear transformer called cosFormer that can achieve comparable or better accuracy to the vanilla transformer in both casual and cross attentions. cosFormer is based on two key properties of softmax attention: i). non-negativeness of the attention matrix; ii). a non-linear re-weighting scheme that can concentrate the distribution of the attention matrix. As its linear substitute, cosFormer fulfills these properties with a linear operator and a cosine-based distance re-weighting mechanism. Extensive experiments on language modeling and text understanding tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. We further examine our method on long sequences and achieve state-of-the-art performance on the Long-Range Arena benchmark. The source code is available at https://github.com/OpenNLPLab/cosFormer.
* Accepted to ICLR2022. Yiran Zhong is the corresponding author. Zhen
Qin, Weixuan Sun, Hui Deng contributed equally to this work
The foundation model is not the last chapter of the model production pipeline. Transferring with few data in a general way to thousands of downstream tasks is becoming a trend of the foundation model's application. In this paper, we proposed a universal transfer framework: One to Transfer All (OTA) to transfer any Vision Foundation Model (VFM) to any downstream tasks with few downstream data. We first transfer a VFM to a task-specific model by Image Re-representation Fine-tuning (IRF) then distilling knowledge from a task-specific model to a deployed model with data produced by Downstream Image-Guided Generation (DIGG). OTA has no dependency on upstream data, VFM, and downstream tasks when transferring. It also provides a way for VFM researchers to release their upstream information for better transferring but not leaking data due to privacy requirements. Massive experiments validate the effectiveness and superiority of our methods in few data setting. Our code will be released.
Enormous waves of technological innovations over the past several years, marked by the advances in AI technologies, are profoundly reshaping the industry and the society. However, down the road, a key challenge awaits us, that is, our capability of meeting rapidly-growing scenario-specific demands is severely limited by the cost of acquiring a commensurate amount of training data. This difficult situation is in essence due to limitations of the mainstream learning paradigm: we need to train a new model for each new scenario, based on a large quantity of well-annotated data and commonly from scratch. In tackling this fundamental problem, we move beyond and develop a new learning paradigm named INTERN. By learning with supervisory signals from multiple sources in multiple stages, the model being trained will develop strong generalizability. We evaluate our model on 26 well-known datasets that cover four categories of tasks in computer vision. In most cases, our models, adapted with only 10% of the training data in the target domain, outperform the counterparts trained with the full set of data, often by a significant margin. This is an important step towards a promising prospect where such a model with general vision capability can dramatically reduce our reliance on data, thus expediting the adoption of AI technologies. Furthermore, revolving around our new paradigm, we also introduce a new data system, a new architecture, and a new benchmark, which, together, form a general vision ecosystem to support its future development in an open and inclusive manner.
Model quantization has emerged as an indispensable technique to accelerate deep learning inference. While researchers continue to push the frontier of quantization algorithms, existing quantization work is often unreproducible and undeployable. This is because researchers do not choose consistent training pipelines and ignore the requirements for hardware deployments. In this work, we propose Model Quantization Benchmark (MQBench), a first attempt to evaluate, analyze, and benchmark the reproducibility and deployability for model quantization algorithms. We choose multiple different platforms for real-world deployments, including CPU, GPU, ASIC, DSP, and evaluate extensive state-of-the-art quantization algorithms under a unified training pipeline. MQBench acts like a bridge to connect the algorithm and the hardware. We conduct a comprehensive analysis and find considerable intuitive or counter-intuitive insights. By aligning the training settings, we find existing algorithms have about the same performance on the conventional academic track. While for the hardware-deployable quantization, there is a huge accuracy gap which remains unsettled. Surprisingly, no existing algorithm wins every challenge in MQBench, and we hope this work could inspire future research directions.
* Accepted by 35th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems
(NeurIPS 2021) Track on Datasets and Benchmarks
Recently, large-scale Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) has attracted unprecedented attention for its impressive zero-shot recognition ability and excellent transferability to downstream tasks. However, CLIP is quite data-hungry and requires 400M image-text pairs for pre-training, thereby restricting its adoption. This work proposes a novel training paradigm, Data efficient CLIP (DeCLIP), to alleviate this limitation. We demonstrate that by carefully utilizing the widespread supervision among the image-text pairs, our De-CLIP can learn generic visual features more efficiently. Instead of using the single image-text contrastive supervision, we fully exploit data potential through the use of (1) self-supervision within each modality; (2) multi-view supervision across modalities; (3) nearest-neighbor supervision from other similar pairs. Benefiting from intrinsic supervision, our DeCLIP-ResNet50 can achieve 60.4% zero-shot top1 accuracy on ImageNet, which is 0.8% above the CLIP-ResNet50 while using 7.1 x fewer data. Our DeCLIP-ResNet50 outperforms its counterpart in 8 out of 11 visual datasets when transferred to downstream tasks. Moreover, Scaling up the model and computing also works well in our framework.Our code, dataset and models are released at: https://github.com/Sense-GVT/DeCLIP
We present BN-NAS, neural architecture search with Batch Normalization (BN-NAS), to accelerate neural architecture search (NAS). BN-NAS can significantly reduce the time required by model training and evaluation in NAS. Specifically, for fast evaluation, we propose a BN-based indicator for predicting subnet performance at a very early training stage. The BN-based indicator further facilitates us to improve the training efficiency by only training the BN parameters during the supernet training. This is based on our observation that training the whole supernet is not necessary while training only BN parameters accelerates network convergence for network architecture search. Extensive experiments show that our method can significantly shorten the time of training supernet by more than 10 times and shorten the time of evaluating subnets by more than 600,000 times without losing accuracy.
Geometry Projection is a powerful depth estimation method in monocular 3D object detection. It estimates depth dependent on heights, which introduces mathematical priors into the deep model. But projection process also introduces the error amplification problem, in which the error of the estimated height will be amplified and reflected greatly at the output depth. This property leads to uncontrollable depth inferences and also damages the training efficiency. In this paper, we propose a Geometry Uncertainty Projection Network (GUP Net) to tackle the error amplification problem at both inference and training stages. Specifically, a GUP module is proposed to obtains the geometry-guided uncertainty of the inferred depth, which not only provides high reliable confidence for each depth but also benefits depth learning. Furthermore, at the training stage, we propose a Hierarchical Task Learning strategy to reduce the instability caused by error amplification. This learning algorithm monitors the learning situation of each task by a proposed indicator and adaptively assigns the proper loss weights for different tasks according to their pre-tasks situation. Based on that, each task starts learning only when its pre-tasks are learned well, which can significantly improve the stability and efficiency of the training process. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The overall model can infer more reliable object depth than existing methods and outperforms the state-of-the-art image-based monocular 3D detectors by 3.74% and 4.7% AP40 of the car and pedestrian categories on the KITTI benchmark.