This paper proposes a new task in the field of Answering Subjective Induction Question on Products (SUBJPQA). The answer to this kind of question is non-unique, but can be interpreted from many perspectives. For example, the answer to 'whether the phone is heavy' has a variety of different viewpoints. A satisfied answer should be able to summarize these subjective opinions from multiple sources and provide objective knowledge, such as the weight of a phone. That is quite different from the traditional QA task, in which the answer to a factoid question is unique and can be found from a single data source. To address this new task, we propose a three-steps method. We first retrieve all answer-related clues from multiple knowledge sources on facts and opinions. The implicit commonsense facts are also collected to supplement the necessary but missing contexts. We then capture their relevance with the questions by interactive attention. Next, we design a reinforcement-based summarizer to aggregate all these knowledgeable clues. Based on a template-controlled decoder, we can output a comprehensive and multi-perspective answer. Due to the lack of a relevant evaluated benchmark set for the new task, we construct a large-scale dataset, named SupQA, consisting of 48,352 samples across 15 product domains. Evaluation results show the effectiveness of our approach.
Recent advances in vision-language pre-training have enabled machines to perform better in multimodal object discrimination (e.g., image-text semantic alignment) and image synthesis (e.g., text-to-image generation). On the other hand, fine-tuning pre-trained models with discriminative or generative capabilities such as CLIP and Stable Diffusion on domain-specific datasets has shown to be effective in various tasks by adapting to specific domains. However, few studies have explored the possibility of learning both discriminative and generative capabilities and leveraging their synergistic effects to create a powerful and personalized multimodal model during fine-tuning. This paper presents UniDiff, a unified multi-modal model that integrates image-text contrastive learning (ITC), text-conditioned image synthesis learning (IS), and reciprocal semantic consistency modeling (RSC). UniDiff effectively learns aligned semantics and mitigates the issue of semantic collapse during fine-tuning on small datasets by leveraging RSC on visual features from CLIP and diffusion models, without altering the pre-trained model's basic architecture. UniDiff demonstrates versatility in both multi-modal understanding and generative tasks. Experimental results on three datasets (Fashion-man, Fashion-woman, and E-commercial Product) showcase substantial enhancements in vision-language retrieval and text-to-image generation, illustrating the advantages of combining discriminative and generative fine-tuning. The proposed UniDiff model establishes a robust pipeline for personalized modeling and serves as a benchmark for future comparisons in the field.
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are known for their strong abilities on capturing the underlying distribution of training instances. Since the seminal work of GAN, many variants of GAN have been proposed. However, existing GANs are almost established on the assumption that the training dataset is clean. But in many real-world applications, this may not hold, that is, the training dataset may be contaminated by a proportion of undesired instances. When training on such datasets, existing GANs will learn a mixture distribution of desired and contaminated instances, rather than the desired distribution of desired data only (target distribution). To learn the target distribution from contaminated datasets, two purified generative adversarial networks (PuriGAN) are developed, in which the discriminators are augmented with the capability to distinguish between target and contaminated instances by leveraging an extra dataset solely composed of contamination instances. We prove that under some mild conditions, the proposed PuriGANs are guaranteed to converge to the distribution of desired instances. Experimental results on several datasets demonstrate that the proposed PuriGANs are able to generate much better images from the desired distribution than comparable baselines when trained on contaminated datasets. In addition, we also demonstrate the usefulness of PuriGAN on downstream applications by applying it to the tasks of semi-supervised anomaly detection on contaminated datasets and PU-learning. Experimental results show that PuriGAN is able to deliver the best performance over comparable baselines on both tasks.
Efficient document retrieval heavily relies on the technique of semantic hashing, which learns a binary code for every document and employs Hamming distance to evaluate document distances. However, existing semantic hashing methods are mostly established on outdated TFIDF features, which obviously do not contain lots of important semantic information about documents. Furthermore, the Hamming distance can only be equal to one of several integer values, significantly limiting its representational ability for document distances. To address these issues, in this paper, we propose to leverage BERT embeddings to perform efficient retrieval based on the product quantization technique, which will assign for every document a real-valued codeword from the codebook, instead of a binary code as in semantic hashing. Specifically, we first transform the original BERT embeddings via a learnable mapping and feed the transformed embedding into a probabilistic product quantization module to output the assigned codeword. The refining and quantizing modules can be optimized in an end-to-end manner by minimizing the probabilistic contrastive loss. A mutual information maximization based method is further proposed to improve the representativeness of codewords, so that documents can be quantized more accurately. Extensive experiments conducted on three benchmarks demonstrate that our proposed method significantly outperforms current state-of-the-art baselines.
Existing unsupervised document hashing methods are mostly established on generative models. Due to the difficulties of capturing long dependency structures, these methods rarely model the raw documents directly, but instead to model the features extracted from them (e.g. bag-of-words (BOW), TFIDF). In this paper, we propose to learn hash codes from BERT embeddings after observing their tremendous successes on downstream tasks. As a first try, we modify existing generative hashing models to accommodate the BERT embeddings. However, little improvement is observed over the codes learned from the old BOW or TFIDF features. We attribute this to the reconstruction requirement in the generative hashing, which will enforce irrelevant information that is abundant in the BERT embeddings also compressed into the codes. To remedy this issue, a new unsupervised hashing paradigm is further proposed based on the mutual information (MI) maximization principle. Specifically, the method first constructs appropriate global and local codes from the documents and then seeks to maximize their mutual information. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed method is able to generate hash codes that outperform existing ones learned from BOW features by a substantial margin.
Dialogue policy learning, a subtask that determines the content of system response generation and then the degree of task completion, is essential for task-oriented dialogue systems. However, the unbalanced distribution of system actions in dialogue datasets often causes difficulty in learning to generate desired actions and responses. In this paper, we propose a retrieve-and-memorize framework to enhance the learning of system actions. Specially, we first design a neural context-aware retrieval module to retrieve multiple candidate system actions from the training set given a dialogue context. Then, we propose a memory-augmented multi-decoder network to generate the system actions conditioned on the candidate actions, which allows the network to adaptively select key information in the candidate actions and ignore noises. We conduct experiments on the large-scale multi-domain task-oriented dialogue dataset MultiWOZ 2.0 and MultiWOZ 2.1. Experimental results show that our method achieves competitive performance among several state-of-the-art models in the context-to-response generation task.
With the need of fast retrieval speed and small memory footprint, document hashing has been playing a crucial role in large-scale information retrieval. To generate high-quality hashing code, both semantics and neighborhood information are crucial. However, most existing methods leverage only one of them or simply combine them via some intuitive criteria, lacking a theoretical principle to guide the integration process. In this paper, we encode the neighborhood information with a graph-induced Gaussian distribution, and propose to integrate the two types of information with a graph-driven generative model. To deal with the complicated correlations among documents, we further propose a tree-structured approximation method for learning. Under the approximation, we prove that the training objective can be decomposed into terms involving only singleton or pairwise documents, enabling the model to be trained as efficiently as uncorrelated ones. Extensive experimental results on three benchmark datasets show that our method achieves superior performance over state-of-the-art methods, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed model for simultaneously preserving semantic and neighborhood information.\
Many unsupervised hashing methods are implicitly established on the idea of reconstructing the input data, which basically encourages the hashing codes to retain as much information of original data as possible. However, this requirement may force the models spending lots of their effort on reconstructing the unuseful background information, while ignoring to preserve the discriminative semantic information that is more important for the hashing task. To tackle this problem, inspired by the recent success of contrastive learning in learning continuous representations, we propose to adapt this framework to learn binary hashing codes. Specifically, we first propose to modify the objective function to meet the specific requirement of hashing and then introduce a probabilistic binary representation layer into the model to facilitate end-to-end training of the entire model. We further prove the strong connection between the proposed contrastive-learning-based hashing method and the mutual information, and show that the proposed model can be considered under the broader framework of the information bottleneck (IB). Under this perspective, a more general hashing model is naturally obtained. Extensive experimental results on three benchmark image datasets demonstrate that the proposed hashing method significantly outperforms existing baselines.