Computed tomography (CT) can provide a 3D view of the patient's internal organs, facilitating disease diagnosis, but it incurs more radiation dose to a patient and a CT scanner is much more cost prohibitive than an X-ray machine too. Traditional CT reconstruction methods require hundreds of X-ray projections through a full rotational scan of the body, which cannot be performed on a typical X-ray machine. In this work, we propose to reconstruct CT from two orthogonal X-rays using the generative adversarial network (GAN) framework. A specially designed generator network is exploited to increase data dimension from 2D (X-rays) to 3D (CT), which is not addressed in previous research of GAN. A novel feature fusion method is proposed to combine information from two X-rays.The mean squared error (MSE) loss and adversarial loss are combined to train the generator, resulting in a high-quality CT volume both visually and quantitatively. Extensive experiments on a publicly available chest CT dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. It could be a nice enhancement of a low-cost X-ray machine to provide physicians a CT-like 3D volume in several niche applications.
For Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, one of the greatest discrepancies between theory and system is the scan order - while most theoretical development on the mixing time analysis deals with random updates, real-world systems are implemented with systematic scans. We bridge this gap for models that exhibit a bipartite structure, including, most notably, the Restricted/Deep Boltzmann Machine. The de facto implementation for these models scans variables in a layerwise fashion. We show that the Gibbs sampler with a layerwise alternating scan order has its relaxation time (in terms of epochs) no larger than that of a random-update Gibbs sampler (in terms of variable updates). We also construct examples to show that this bound is asymptotically tight. Through standard inequalities, our result also implies a comparison on the mixing times.