Ranking model plays an essential role in e-commerce search and recommendation. An effective ranking model should give a personalized ranking list for each user according to the user preference. Existing algorithms usually extract a user representation vector from the user behavior sequence, then feed the vector into a feed-forward network (FFN) together with other features for feature interactions, and finally produce a personalized ranking score. Despite tremendous progress in the past, there is still room for improvement. Firstly, the personalized patterns of feature interactions for different users are not explicitly modeled. Secondly, most of existing algorithms have poor personalized ranking results for long-tail users with few historical behaviors due to the data sparsity. To overcome the two challenges, we propose Attention Weighted Mixture of Experts (AW-MoE) with contrastive learning for personalized ranking. Firstly, AW-MoE leverages the MoE framework to capture personalized feature interactions for different users. To model the user preference, the user behavior sequence is simultaneously fed into expert networks and the gate network. Within the gate network, one gate unit and one activation unit are designed to adaptively learn the fine-grained activation vector for experts using an attention mechanism. Secondly, a random masking strategy is applied to the user behavior sequence to simulate long-tail users, and an auxiliary contrastive loss is imposed to the output of the gate network to improve the model generalization for these users. This is validated by a higher performance gain on the long-tail user test set. Experiment results on a JD real production dataset and a public dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of AW-MoE, which significantly outperforms state-of-art methods. Notably, AW-MoE has been successfully deployed in the JD e-commerce search engine, ...
Recently, personalized product search attracts great attention and many models have been proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of these models, previous studies mainly utilize the simulated Amazon recommendation dataset, which contains automatically generated queries and excludes cold users and tail products. We argue that evaluating with such a dataset may yield unreliable results and conclusions, and deviate from real user satisfaction. To overcome these problems, in this paper, we release a personalized product search dataset comprised of real user queries and diverse user-product interaction types (clicking, adding to cart, following, and purchasing) collected from JD.com, a popular Chinese online shopping platform. More specifically, we sample about 170,000 active users on a specific date, then record all their interacted products and issued queries in one year, without removing any tail users and products. This finally results in roughly 12,000,000 products, 9,400,000 real searches, and 26,000,000 user-product interactions. We study the characteristics of this dataset from various perspectives and evaluate representative personalization models to verify its feasibility. The dataset can be publicly accessed at Github: https://github.com/rucliujn/JDsearch.
Recent years have seen a significant amount of interests in Sequential Recommendation (SR), which aims to understand and model the sequential user behaviors and the interactions between users and items over time. Surprisingly, despite the huge success Sequential Recommendation has achieved, there is little study on Sequential Search (SS), a twin learning task that takes into account a user's current and past search queries, in addition to behavior on historical query sessions. The SS learning task is even more important than the counterpart SR task for most of E-commence companies due to its much larger online serving demands as well as traffic volume. To this end, we propose a highly scalable hybrid learning model that consists of an RNN learning framework leveraging all features in short-term user-item interactions, and an attention model utilizing selected item-only features from long-term interactions. As a novel optimization step, we fit multiple short user sequences in a single RNN pass within a training batch, by solving a greedy knapsack problem on the fly. Moreover, we explore the use of off-policy reinforcement learning in multi-session personalized search ranking. Specifically, we design a pairwise Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient model that efficiently captures users' long term reward in terms of pairwise classification error. Extensive ablation experiments demonstrate significant improvement each component brings to its state-of-the-art baseline, on a variety of offline and online metrics.
Result relevance scoring is critical to e-commerce search user experience. Traditional information retrieval methods focus on keyword matching and hand-crafted or counting-based numeric features, with limited understanding of item semantic relevance. We describe a highly-scalable feed-forward neural model to provide relevance score for (query, item) pairs, using only user query and item title as features, and both user click feedback as well as limited human ratings as labels. Several general enhancements were applied to further optimize eval/test metrics, including Siamese pairwise architecture, random batch negative co-training, and point-wise fine-tuning. We found significant improvement over GBDT baseline as well as several off-the-shelf deep-learning baselines on an independently constructed ratings dataset. The GBDT model relies on 10 times more features. We also present metrics for select subset combinations of techniques mentioned above.
We introduce deep learning models to the two most important stages in product search at JD.com, one of the largest e-commerce platforms in the world. Specifically, we outline the design of a deep learning system that retrieves semantically relevant items to a query within milliseconds, and a pairwise deep re-ranking system, which learns subtle user preferences. Compared to traditional search systems, the proposed approaches are better at semantic retrieval and personalized ranking, achieving significant improvements.
Product search is the most common way for people to satisfy their shopping needs on e-commerce websites. Products are typically annotated with one of several broad categorical tags, such as "Clothing" or "Electronics", as well as finer-grained categories like "Refrigerator" or "TV", both under "Electronics". These tags are used to construct a hierarchy of query categories. Feature distributions such as price and brand popularity vary wildly across query categories. In addition, feature importance for the purpose of CTR/CVR predictions differs from one category to another. In this work, we leverage the Mixture of Expert (MoE) framework to learn a ranking model that specializes for each query category. In particular, our gate network relies solely on the category ids extracted from the user query. While classical MoE's pick expert towers spontaneously for each input example, we explore two techniques to establish more explicit and transparent connections between the experts and query categories. To help differentiate experts on their domain specialties, we introduce a form of adversarial regularization among the expert outputs, forcing them to disagree with one another. As a result, they tend to approach each prediction problem from different angles, rather than copying one another. This is validated by a much stronger clustering effect of the gate output vectors under different categories. In addition, soft gating constraints based on the categorical hierarchy are imposed to help similar products choose similar gate values. and make them more likely to share similar experts. This allows aggregation of training data among smaller sibling categories to overcome data scarcity issues among the latter. Experiments on a learning-to-rank dataset gathered from a leading e-commerce search log demonstrate that MoE with our improvements consistently outperforms competing models.