Speech processing Universal PERformance Benchmark (SUPERB) is a leaderboard to benchmark the performance of Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) models on various speech processing tasks. However, SUPERB largely considers English speech in its evaluation. This paper presents multilingual SUPERB (ML-SUPERB), covering 143 languages (ranging from high-resource to endangered), and considering both automatic speech recognition and language identification. Following the concept of SUPERB, ML-SUPERB utilizes frozen SSL features and employs a simple framework for multilingual tasks by learning a shallow downstream model. Similar to the SUPERB benchmark, we find speech SSL models can significantly improve performance compared to FBANK features. Furthermore, we find that multilingual models do not always perform better than their monolingual counterparts. We will release ML-SUPERB as a challenge with organized datasets and reproducible training scripts for future multilingual representation research.
Aiming to produce reinforcement learning (RL) policies that are human-interpretable and can generalize better to novel scenarios, Trivedi et al. (2021) present a method (LEAPS) that first learns a program embedding space to continuously parameterize diverse programs from a pre-generated program dataset, and then searches for a task-solving program in the learned program embedding space when given a task. Despite encouraging results, the program policies that LEAPS can produce are limited by the distribution of the program dataset. Furthermore, during searching, LEAPS evaluates each candidate program solely based on its return, failing to precisely reward correct parts of programs and penalize incorrect parts. To address these issues, we propose to learn a meta-policy that composes a series of programs sampled from the learned program embedding space. By composing programs, our proposed method can produce program policies that describe out-of-distributionally complex behaviors and directly assign credits to programs that induce desired behaviors. We design and conduct extensive experiments in the Karel domain. The experimental results show that our proposed framework outperforms baselines. The ablation studies confirm the limitations of LEAPS and justify our design choices.