In the realm of text-to-3D generation, utilizing 2D diffusion models through score distillation sampling (SDS) frequently leads to issues such as blurred appearances and multi-faced geometry, primarily due to the intrinsically noisy nature of the SDS loss. Our analysis identifies the core of these challenges as the interaction among noise levels in the 2D diffusion process, the architecture of the diffusion network, and the 3D model representation. To overcome these limitations, we present StableDreamer, a methodology incorporating three advances. First, inspired by InstructNeRF2NeRF, we formalize the equivalence of the SDS generative prior and a simple supervised L2 reconstruction loss. This finding provides a novel tool to debug SDS, which we use to show the impact of time-annealing noise levels on reducing multi-faced geometries. Second, our analysis shows that while image-space diffusion contributes to geometric precision, latent-space diffusion is crucial for vivid color rendition. Based on this observation, StableDreamer introduces a two-stage training strategy that effectively combines these aspects, resulting in high-fidelity 3D models. Third, we adopt an anisotropic 3D Gaussians representation, replacing Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs), to enhance the overall quality, reduce memory usage during training, and accelerate rendering speeds, and better capture semi-transparent objects. StableDreamer reduces multi-face geometries, generates fine details, and converges stably.
We present Ego-Exo4D, a diverse, large-scale multimodal multiview video dataset and benchmark challenge. Ego-Exo4D centers around simultaneously-captured egocentric and exocentric video of skilled human activities (e.g., sports, music, dance, bike repair). More than 800 participants from 13 cities worldwide performed these activities in 131 different natural scene contexts, yielding long-form captures from 1 to 42 minutes each and 1,422 hours of video combined. The multimodal nature of the dataset is unprecedented: the video is accompanied by multichannel audio, eye gaze, 3D point clouds, camera poses, IMU, and multiple paired language descriptions -- including a novel "expert commentary" done by coaches and teachers and tailored to the skilled-activity domain. To push the frontier of first-person video understanding of skilled human activity, we also present a suite of benchmark tasks and their annotations, including fine-grained activity understanding, proficiency estimation, cross-view translation, and 3D hand/body pose. All resources will be open sourced to fuel new research in the community.
Photoacoustic (PA) endoscopy has shown significant potential for clinical diagnosis and surgical guidance. Multimode fibres (MMFs) are becoming increasing attractive for the development of miniature endoscopy probes owing to ultrathin size, low cost and diffraction-limited spatial resolution enabled by wavefront shaping. However, current MMF-based PA endomicroscopy probes are either limited by a bulky ultrasound detector or a low imaging speed which hindered their usability. In this work, we report the development of a highly miniaturised and high-speed PA endomicroscopy probe that is integrated within the cannula of a 20 gauge medical needle. This probe comprises a MMF for delivering the PA excitation light and a single-mode optical fibre with a plano-concave microresonator for ultrasound detection. Wavefront shaping with a digital micromirror device enabled rapid raster-scanning of a focused light spot at the distal end of the MMF for tissue interrogation. High-resolution PA imaging of mouse red blood cells covering an area 100 microns in diameter was achieved with the needle probe at ~3 frames per second. Mosaicing imaging was performed after fibre characterisation by translating the needle probe to enlarge the field-of-view in real-time. The developed ultrathin PA endomicroscopy probe is promising for guiding minimally invasive surgery by providing functional, molecular and microstructural information of tissue in real-time.
Removing objects from images is a challenging problem that is important for many applications, including mixed reality. For believable results, the shadows that the object casts should also be removed. Current inpainting-based methods only remove the object itself, leaving shadows behind, or at best require specifying shadow regions to inpaint. We introduce a deep learning pipeline for removing a shadow along with its caster. We leverage rough scene models in order to remove a wide variety of shadows (hard or soft, dark or subtle, large or thin) from surfaces with a wide variety of textures. We train our pipeline on synthetically rendered data, and show qualitative and quantitative results on both synthetic and real scenes.
Today's robotic fleets are increasingly measuring high-volume video and LIDAR sensory streams, which can be mined for valuable training data, such as rare scenes of road construction sites, to steadily improve robotic perception models. However, re-training perception models on growing volumes of rich sensory data in central compute servers (or the "cloud") places an enormous time and cost burden on network transfer, cloud storage, human annotation, and cloud computing resources. Hence, we introduce HarvestNet, an intelligent sampling algorithm that resides on-board a robot and reduces system bottlenecks by only storing rare, useful events to steadily improve perception models re-trained in the cloud. HarvestNet significantly improves the accuracy of machine-learning models on our novel dataset of road construction sites, field testing of self-driving cars, and streaming face recognition, while reducing cloud storage, dataset annotation time, and cloud compute time by between 65.7-81.3%. Further, it is between 1.05-2.58x more accurate than baseline algorithms and scalably runs on embedded deep learning hardware. We provide a suite of compute-efficient perception models for the Google Edge Tensor Processing Unit (TPU), an extended technical report, and a novel video dataset to the research community at https://sites.google.com/view/harvestnet.
* International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (ISER) 2020, Malta