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Dongsheng Li

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Towards Deeper, Lighter and Interpretable Cross Network for CTR Prediction

Nov 08, 2023
Fangye Wang, Hansu Gu, Dongsheng Li, Tun Lu, Peng Zhang, Ning Gu

Click Through Rate (CTR) prediction plays an essential role in recommender systems and online advertising. It is crucial to effectively model feature interactions to improve the prediction performance of CTR models. However, existing methods face three significant challenges. First, while most methods can automatically capture high-order feature interactions, their performance tends to diminish as the order of feature interactions increases. Second, existing methods lack the ability to provide convincing interpretations of the prediction results, especially for high-order feature interactions, which limits the trustworthiness of their predictions. Third, many methods suffer from the presence of redundant parameters, particularly in the embedding layer. This paper proposes a novel method called Gated Deep Cross Network (GDCN) and a Field-level Dimension Optimization (FDO) approach to address these challenges. As the core structure of GDCN, Gated Cross Network (GCN) captures explicit high-order feature interactions and dynamically filters important interactions with an information gate in each order. Additionally, we use the FDO approach to learn condensed dimensions for each field based on their importance. Comprehensive experiments on five datasets demonstrate the effectiveness, superiority and interpretability of GDCN. Moreover, we verify the effectiveness of FDO in learning various dimensions and reducing model parameters. The code is available on \url{}.

* This paper is accepted by Proceedings of the 32nd ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM '23). In the Arxiv version, we add additional designs with associated experiments 
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A Comprehensive Summarization and Evaluation of Feature Refinement Modules for CTR Prediction

Nov 08, 2023
Fangye Wang, Yingxu Wang, Hansu Gu, Dongsheng Li, Tun Lu, Peng Zhang, Li Shang, Ning Gu

Click-through rate (CTR) prediction is widely used in academia and industry. Most CTR tasks fall into a feature embedding \& feature interaction paradigm, where the accuracy of CTR prediction is mainly improved by designing practical feature interaction structures. However, recent studies have argued that the fixed feature embedding learned only through the embedding layer limits the performance of existing CTR models. Some works apply extra modules on top of the embedding layer to dynamically refine feature representations in different instances, making it effective and easy to integrate with existing CTR methods. Despite the promising results, there is a lack of a systematic review and summarization of this new promising direction on the CTR task. To fill this gap, we comprehensively summarize and define a new module, namely \textbf{feature refinement} (FR) module, that can be applied between feature embedding and interaction layers. We extract 14 FR modules from previous works, including instances where the FR module was proposed but not clearly defined or explained. We fully assess the effectiveness and compatibility of existing FR modules through comprehensive and extensive experiments with over 200 augmented models and over 4,000 runs for more than 15,000 GPU hours. The results offer insightful guidelines for researchers, and all benchmarking code and experimental results are open-sourced. In addition, we present a new architecture of assigning independent FR modules to separate sub-networks for parallel CTR models, as opposed to the conventional method of inserting a shared FR module on top of the embedding layer. Our approach is also supported by comprehensive experiments demonstrating its effectiveness.

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Label Propagation for Graph Label Noise

Oct 25, 2023
Yao Cheng, Caihua Shan, Yifei Shen, Xiang Li, Siqiang Luo, Dongsheng Li

Label noise is a common challenge in large datasets, as it can significantly degrade the generalization ability of deep neural networks. Most existing studies focus on noisy labels in computer vision; however, graph models encompass both node features and graph topology as input, and become more susceptible to label noise through message-passing mechanisms. Recently, only a few works have been proposed to tackle the label noise on graphs. One major limitation is that they assume the graph is homophilous and the labels are smoothly distributed. Nevertheless, real-world graphs may contain varying degrees of heterophily or even be heterophily-dominated, leading to the inadequacy of current methods. In this paper, we study graph label noise in the context of arbitrary heterophily, with the aim of rectifying noisy labels and assigning labels to previously unlabeled nodes. We begin by conducting two empirical analyses to explore the impact of graph homophily on graph label noise. Following observations, we propose a simple yet efficient algorithm, denoted as LP4GLN. Specifically, LP4GLN is an iterative algorithm with three steps: (1) reconstruct the graph to recover the homophily property, (2) utilize label propagation to rectify the noisy labels, (3) select high-confidence labels to retain for the next iteration. By iterating these steps, we obtain a set of correct labels, ultimately achieving high accuracy in the node classification task. The theoretical analysis is also provided to demonstrate its remarkable denoising "effect". Finally, we conduct experiments on 10 benchmark datasets under varying graph heterophily levels and noise types, comparing the performance of LP4GLN with 7 typical baselines. Our results illustrate the superior performance of the proposed LP4GLN.

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GROVE: A Retrieval-augmented Complex Story Generation Framework with A Forest of Evidence

Oct 24, 2023
Zhihua Wen, Zhiliang Tian, Wei Wu, Yuxin Yang, Yanqi Shi, Zhen Huang, Dongsheng Li

Conditional story generation is significant in human-machine interaction, particularly in producing stories with complex plots. While Large language models (LLMs) perform well on multiple NLP tasks, including story generation, it is challenging to generate stories with both complex and creative plots. Existing methods often rely on detailed prompts to guide LLMs to meet target conditions, which inadvertently restrict the creative potential of the generated stories. We argue that leveraging information from exemplary human-written stories facilitates generating more diverse plotlines. Delving deeper into story details helps build complex and credible plots. In this paper, we propose a retrieval-au\textbf{G}mented sto\textbf{R}y generation framework with a f\textbf{O}rest of e\textbf{V}id\textbf{E}nce (GROVE) to enhance stories' complexity. We build a retrieval repository for target conditions to produce few-shot examples to prompt LLMs. Additionally, we design an ``asking-why'' prompting scheme that extracts a forest of evidence, providing compensation for the ambiguities that may occur in the generated story. This iterative process uncovers underlying story backgrounds. Finally, we select the most fitting chains of evidence from the evidence forest and integrate them into the generated story, thereby enhancing the narrative's complexity and credibility. Experimental results and numerous examples verify the effectiveness of our method.

* Findings of EMNLP 2023 
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Rethinking SIGN Training: Provable Nonconvex Acceleration without First- and Second-Order Gradient Lipschitz

Oct 23, 2023
Tao Sun, Congliang Chen, Peng Qiao, Li Shen, Xinwang Liu, Dongsheng Li

Sign-based stochastic methods have gained attention due to their ability to achieve robust performance despite using only the sign information for parameter updates. However, the current convergence analysis of sign-based methods relies on the strong assumptions of first-order gradient Lipschitz and second-order gradient Lipschitz, which may not hold in practical tasks like deep neural network training that involve high non-smoothness. In this paper, we revisit sign-based methods and analyze their convergence under more realistic assumptions of first- and second-order smoothness. We first establish the convergence of the sign-based method under weak first-order Lipschitz. Motivated by the weak first-order Lipschitz, we propose a relaxed second-order condition that still allows for nonconvex acceleration in sign-based methods. Based on our theoretical results, we gain insights into the computational advantages of the recently developed LION algorithm. In distributed settings, we prove that this nonconvex acceleration persists with linear speedup in the number of nodes, when utilizing fast communication compression gossip protocols. The novelty of our theoretical results lies in that they are derived under much weaker assumptions, thereby expanding the provable applicability of sign-based algorithms to a wider range of problems.

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Learning To Teach Large Language Models Logical Reasoning

Oct 13, 2023
Meiqi Chen, Yubo Ma, Kaitao Song, Yixin Cao, Yan Zhang, Dongsheng Li

Large language models (LLMs) have gained enormous attention from both academia and industry, due to their exceptional ability in language generation and extremely powerful generalization. However, current LLMs still output unreliable content in practical reasoning tasks due to their inherent issues (e.g., hallucination). To better disentangle this problem, in this paper, we conduct an in-depth investigation to systematically explore the capability of LLMs in logical reasoning. More in detail, we first investigate the deficiency of LLMs in logical reasoning on different tasks, including event relation extraction and deductive reasoning. Our study demonstrates that LLMs are not good reasoners in solving tasks with rigorous reasoning and will produce counterfactual answers, which require us to iteratively refine. Therefore, we comprehensively explore different strategies to endow LLMs with logical reasoning ability, and thus enable them to generate more logically consistent answers across different scenarios. Based on our approach, we also contribute a synthesized dataset (LLM-LR) involving multi-hop reasoning for evaluation and pre-training. Extensive quantitative and qualitative analyses on different tasks also validate the effectiveness and necessity of teaching LLMs with logic and provide insights for solving practical tasks with LLMs in future work.

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LongLLMLingua: Accelerating and Enhancing LLMs in Long Context Scenarios via Prompt Compression

Oct 10, 2023
Huiqiang Jiang, Qianhui Wu, Xufang Luo, Dongsheng Li, Chin-Yew Lin, Yuqing Yang, Lili Qiu

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In long context scenarios, large language models (LLMs) face three main challenges: higher computational/financial cost, longer latency, and inferior performance. Some studies reveal that the performance of LLMs depends on both the density and the position of the key information (question relevant) in the input prompt. Inspired by these findings, we propose LongLLMLingua for prompt compression towards improving LLMs' perception of the key information to simultaneously address the three challenges. We conduct evaluation on a wide range of long context scenarios including single-/multi-document QA, few-shot learning, summarization, synthetic tasks, and code completion. The experimental results show that LongLLMLingua compressed prompt can derive higher performance with much less cost. The latency of the end-to-end system is also reduced. For example, on NaturalQuestions benchmark, LongLLMLingua gains a performance boost of up to 17.1% over the original prompt with ~4x fewer tokens as input to GPT-3.5-Turbo. It can derive cost savings of \$28.5 and \$27.4 per 1,000 samples from the LongBench and ZeroScrolls benchmark, respectively. Additionally, when compressing prompts of ~10k tokens at a compression rate of 2x-10x, LongLLMLingua can speed up the end-to-end latency by 1.4x-3.8x. Our code is available at

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RAH! RecSys-Assistant-Human: A Human-Central Recommendation Framework with Large Language Models

Aug 19, 2023
Yubo Shu, Hansu Gu, Peng Zhang, Haonan Zhang, Tun Lu, Dongsheng Li, Ning Gu

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The recommendation ecosystem involves interactions between recommender systems(Computer) and users(Human). Orthogonal to the perspective of recommender systems, we attempt to utilize LLMs from the perspective of users and propose a more human-central recommendation framework named RAH, which consists of Recommender system, Assistant and Human. The assistant is a LLM-based and personal proxy for a human to achieve user satisfaction. The assistant plays a non-invasion role and the RAH framework can adapt to different recommender systems and user groups. Subsequently, we implement and evaluate the RAH framework for learning user personalities and proxy human feedback. The experiment shows that (1) using learn-action-critic and reflection mechanisms can lead more aligned personality and (2) our assistant can effectively proxy human feedback and help adjust recommender systems. Finally, we discuss further strategies in the RAH framework to address human-central concerns including user control, privacy and fairness.

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Towards Understanding the Generalizability of Delayed Stochastic Gradient Descent

Aug 18, 2023
Xiaoge Deng, Li Shen, Shengwei Li, Tao Sun, Dongsheng Li, Dacheng Tao

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Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) performed in an asynchronous manner plays a crucial role in training large-scale machine learning models. However, the generalization performance of asynchronous delayed SGD, which is an essential metric for assessing machine learning algorithms, has rarely been explored. Existing generalization error bounds are rather pessimistic and cannot reveal the correlation between asynchronous delays and generalization. In this paper, we investigate sharper generalization error bound for SGD with asynchronous delay $\tau$. Leveraging the generating function analysis tool, we first establish the average stability of the delayed gradient algorithm. Based on this algorithmic stability, we provide upper bounds on the generalization error of $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(\frac{T-\tau}{n\tau})$ and $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(\frac{1}{n})$ for quadratic convex and strongly convex problems, respectively, where $T$ refers to the iteration number and $n$ is the amount of training data. Our theoretical results indicate that asynchronous delays reduce the generalization error of the delayed SGD algorithm. Analogous analysis can be generalized to the random delay setting, and the experimental results validate our theoretical findings.

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