The study explores the effectiveness of the Chain-of-Thought approach, known for its proficiency in language tasks by breaking them down into sub-tasks and intermediate steps, in improving vision-language tasks that demand sophisticated perception and reasoning. We present the "Description then Decision" strategy, which is inspired by how humans process signals. This strategy significantly improves probing task performance by 50%, establishing the groundwork for future research on reasoning paradigms in complex vision-language tasks.
In recent years, advances in the large-scale pretraining of language and text-to-image models have revolutionized the field of machine learning. Yet, integrating these two modalities into a single, robust model capable of generating seamless multimodal outputs remains a significant challenge. To address this gap, we present the Joint Autoregressive Mixture (JAM) framework, a modular approach that systematically fuses existing text and image generation models. We also introduce a specialized, data-efficient instruction-tuning strategy, tailored for mixed-modal generation tasks. Our final instruct-tuned model demonstrates unparalleled performance in generating high-quality multimodal outputs and represents the first model explicitly designed for this purpose.
We present a series of long-context LLMs that support effective context windows of up to 32,768 tokens. Our model series are built through continual pretraining from Llama 2 with longer training sequences and on a dataset where long texts are upsampled. We perform extensive evaluation on language modeling, synthetic context probing tasks, and a wide range of research benchmarks. On research benchmarks, our models achieve consistent improvements on most regular tasks and significant improvements on long-context tasks over Llama 2. Notably, with a cost-effective instruction tuning procedure that does not require human-annotated long instruction data, the 70B variant can already surpass gpt-3.5-turbo-16k's overall performance on a suite of long-context tasks. Alongside these results, we provide an in-depth analysis on the individual components of our method. We delve into Llama's position encodings and discuss its limitation in modeling long dependencies. We also examine the impact of various design choices in the pretraining process, including the data mix and the training curriculum of sequence lengths -- our ablation experiments suggest that having abundant long texts in the pretrain dataset is not the key to achieving strong performance, and we empirically verify that long context continual pretraining is more efficient and similarly effective compared to pretraining from scratch with long sequences.
Weight-sharing supernet has become a vital component for performance estimation in the state-of-the-art (SOTA) neural architecture search (NAS) frameworks. Although supernet can directly generate different subnetworks without retraining, there is no guarantee for the quality of these subnetworks because of weight sharing. In NLP tasks such as machine translation and pre-trained language modeling, we observe that given the same model architecture, there is a large performance gap between supernet and training from scratch. Hence, supernet cannot be directly used and retraining is necessary after finding the optimal architectures. In this work, we propose mixture-of-supernets, a generalized supernet formulation where mixture-of-experts (MoE) is adopted to enhance the expressive power of the supernet model, with negligible training overhead. In this way, different subnetworks do not share the model weights directly, but through an architecture-based routing mechanism. As a result, model weights of different subnetworks are customized towards their specific architectures and the weight generation is learned by gradient descent. Compared to existing weight-sharing supernet for NLP, our method can minimize the retraining time, greatly improving training efficiency. In addition, the proposed method achieves the SOTA performance in NAS for building fast machine translation models, yielding better latency-BLEU tradeoff compared to HAT, state-of-the-art NAS for MT. We also achieve the SOTA performance in NAS for building memory-efficient task-agnostic BERT models, outperforming NAS-BERT and AutoDistil in various model sizes.
Ternary and binary neural networks enable multiplication-free computation and promise multiple orders of magnitude efficiency gains over full-precision networks if implemented on specialized hardware. However, since both the parameter and the output space are highly discretized, such networks have proven very difficult to optimize. The difficulties are compounded for the class of transformer text generation models due to the sensitivity of the attention operation to quantization and the noise-compounding effects of autoregressive decoding in the high-cardinality output space. We approach the problem with a mix of statistics-based quantization for the weights and elastic quantization of the activations and demonstrate the first ternary and binary transformer models on the downstream tasks of summarization and machine translation. Our ternary BART base achieves an R1 score of 41 on the CNN/DailyMail benchmark, which is merely 3.9 points behind the full model while being 16x more efficient. Our binary model, while less accurate, achieves a highly non-trivial score of 35.6. For machine translation, we achieved BLEU scores of 21.7 and 17.6 on the WMT16 En-Ro benchmark, compared with a full precision mBART model score of 26.8. We also compare our approach in the 8-bit activation setting, where our ternary and even binary weight models can match or outperform the best existing 8-bit weight models in the literature. Our code and models are available at: https://github.com/facebookresearch/Ternary_Binary_Transformer
Several post-training quantization methods have been applied to large language models (LLMs), and have been shown to perform well down to 8-bits. We find that these methods break down at lower bit precision, and investigate quantization aware training for LLMs (LLM-QAT) to push quantization levels even further. We propose a data-free distillation method that leverages generations produced by the pre-trained model, which better preserves the original output distribution and allows quantizing any generative model independent of its training data, similar to post-training quantization methods. In addition to quantizing weights and activations, we also quantize the KV cache, which is critical for increasing throughput and support long sequence dependencies at current model sizes. We experiment with LLaMA models of sizes 7B, 13B, and 30B, at quantization levels down to 4-bits. We observe large improvements over training-free methods, especially in the low-bit settings.
Various techniques have been developed in recent years to improve dense retrieval (DR), such as unsupervised contrastive learning and pseudo-query generation. Existing DRs, however, often suffer from effectiveness tradeoffs between supervised and zero-shot retrieval, which some argue was due to the limited model capacity. We contradict this hypothesis and show that a generalizable DR can be trained to achieve high accuracy in both supervised and zero-shot retrieval without increasing model size. In particular, we systematically examine the contrastive learning of DRs, under the framework of Data Augmentation (DA). Our study shows that common DA practices such as query augmentation with generative models and pseudo-relevance label creation using a cross-encoder, are often inefficient and sub-optimal. We hence propose a new DA approach with diverse queries and sources of supervision to progressively train a generalizable DR. As a result, DRAGON, our dense retriever trained with diverse augmentation, is the first BERT-base-sized DR to achieve state-of-the-art effectiveness in both supervised and zero-shot evaluations and even competes with models using more complex late interaction (ColBERTv2 and SPLADE++).
Multi-vector retrieval methods combine the merits of sparse (e.g. BM25) and dense (e.g. DPR) retrievers and have achieved state-of-the-art performance on various retrieval tasks. These methods, however, are orders of magnitude slower and need much more space to store their indices compared to their single-vector counterparts. In this paper, we unify different multi-vector retrieval models from a token routing viewpoint and propose conditional token interaction via dynamic lexical routing, namely CITADEL, for efficient and effective multi-vector retrieval. CITADEL learns to route different token vectors to the predicted lexical ``keys'' such that a query token vector only interacts with document token vectors routed to the same key. This design significantly reduces the computation cost while maintaining high accuracy. Notably, CITADEL achieves the same or slightly better performance than the previous state of the art, ColBERT-v2, on both in-domain (MS MARCO) and out-of-domain (BEIR) evaluations, while being nearly 40 times faster. Code and data are available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/dpr-scale.
Building dense retrievers requires a series of standard procedures, including training and validating neural models and creating indexes for efficient search. However, these procedures are often misaligned in that training objectives do not exactly reflect the retrieval scenario at inference time. In this paper, we explore how the gap between training and inference in dense retrieval can be reduced, focusing on dense phrase retrieval (Lee et al., 2021) where billions of representations are indexed at inference. Since validating every dense retriever with a large-scale index is practically infeasible, we propose an efficient way of validating dense retrievers using a small subset of the entire corpus. This allows us to validate various training strategies including unifying contrastive loss terms and using hard negatives for phrase retrieval, which largely reduces the training-inference discrepancy. As a result, we improve top-1 phrase retrieval accuracy by 2~3 points and top-20 passage retrieval accuracy by 2~4 points for open-domain question answering. Our work urges modeling dense retrievers with careful consideration of training and inference via efficient validation while advancing phrase retrieval as a general solution for dense retrieval.
Existing hybrid retrievers which integrate sparse and dense retrievers, are indexing-heavy, limiting their applicability in real-world on-devices settings. We ask the question "Is it possible to reduce the indexing memory of hybrid retrievers without sacrificing performance?" Driven by this question, we leverage an indexing-efficient dense retriever (i.e. DrBoost) to obtain a light hybrid retriever. Moreover, to further reduce the memory, we introduce a lighter dense retriever (LITE) which is jointly trained on contrastive learning and knowledge distillation from DrBoost. Compared to previous heavy hybrid retrievers, our Hybrid-LITE retriever saves 13 memory while maintaining 98.0 performance. In addition, we study the generalization of light hybrid retrievers along two dimensions, out-of-domain (OOD) generalization and robustness against adversarial attacks. We evaluate models on two existing OOD benchmarks and create six adversarial attack sets for robustness evaluation. Experiments show that our light hybrid retrievers achieve better robustness performance than both sparse and dense retrievers. Nevertheless there is a large room to improve the robustness of retrievers, and our datasets can aid future research.