Large language models (LMs) are prone to generate diverse factually incorrect statements, which are widely called hallucinations. Current approaches predominantly focus on coarse-grained automatic hallucination detection or editing, overlooking nuanced error levels. In this paper, we propose a novel task -- automatic fine-grained hallucination detection -- and present a comprehensive taxonomy encompassing six hierarchically defined types of hallucination. To facilitate evaluation, we introduce a new benchmark that includes fine-grained human judgments on two LM outputs across various domains. Our analysis reveals that ChatGPT and Llama 2-Chat exhibit hallucinations in 60% and 75% of their outputs, respectively, and a majority of these hallucinations fall into categories that have been underexplored. As an initial step to address this, we train FAVA, a retrieval-augmented LM by carefully designing synthetic data generations to detect and correct fine-grained hallucinations. On our benchmark, our automatic and human evaluations show that FAVA significantly outperforms ChatGPT on fine-grained hallucination detection by a large margin though a large room for future improvement still exists. FAVA's suggested edits also improve the factuality of LM-generated text, resulting in 5-10% FActScore improvements.
Despite their remarkable capabilities, large language models (LLMs) often produce responses containing factual inaccuracies due to their sole reliance on the parametric knowledge they encapsulate. Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG), an ad hoc approach that augments LMs with retrieval of relevant knowledge, decreases such issues. However, indiscriminately retrieving and incorporating a fixed number of retrieved passages, regardless of whether retrieval is necessary, or passages are relevant, diminishes LM versatility or can lead to unhelpful response generation. We introduce a new framework called Self-Reflective Retrieval-Augmented Generation (Self-RAG) that enhances an LM's quality and factuality through retrieval and self-reflection. Our framework trains a single arbitrary LM that adaptively retrieves passages on-demand, and generates and reflects on retrieved passages and its own generations using special tokens, called reflection tokens. Generating reflection tokens makes the LM controllable during the inference phase, enabling it to tailor its behavior to diverse task requirements. Experiments show that Self-RAG (7B and 13B parameters) significantly outperforms state-of-the-art LLMs and retrieval-augmented models on a diverse set of tasks. Specifically, Self-RAG outperforms ChatGPT and retrieval-augmented Llama2-chat on Open-domain QA, reasoning and fact verification tasks, and it shows significant gains in improving factuality and citation accuracy for long-form generations relative to these models.
Despite remarkable advancements in few-shot generalization in natural language processing, most models are developed and evaluated primarily in English. To facilitate research on few-shot cross-lingual transfer, we introduce a new benchmark, called BUFFET, which unifies 15 diverse tasks across 54 languages in a sequence-to-sequence format and provides a fixed set of few-shot examples and instructions. BUFFET is designed to establish a rigorous and equitable evaluation framework for few-shot cross-lingual transfer across a broad range of tasks and languages. Using BUFFET, we perform thorough evaluations of state-of-the-art multilingual large language models with different transfer methods, namely in-context learning and fine-tuning. Our findings reveal significant room for improvement in few-shot in-context cross-lingual transfer. In particular, ChatGPT with in-context learning often performs worse than much smaller mT5-base models fine-tuned on English task data and few-shot in-language examples. Our analysis suggests various avenues for future research in few-shot cross-lingual transfer, such as improved pretraining, understanding, and future evaluations.
Recent work in NLP has shown promising results in training models on large amounts of tasks to achieve better generalization. However, it is not well-understood how tasks are related, and how helpful training tasks can be chosen for a new task. In this work, we investigate whether knowing task relationships via pairwise task transfer improves choosing one or more source tasks that help to learn a new target task. We provide TaskWeb, a large-scale benchmark of pairwise task transfers for 22 NLP tasks using three different model types, sizes, and adaptation methods, spanning about 25,000 experiments. Then, we design a new method TaskShop based on our analysis of TaskWeb. TaskShop uses TaskWeb to estimate the benefit of using a source task for learning a new target, and to choose a subset of helpful training tasks for multi-task learning. Our method improves overall rankings and top-k precision of source tasks by 12% and 29%, respectively. We also use TaskShop to build smaller multi-task training sets that improve zero-shot performances across 11 different target tasks by at least 4.3%.
Product Question Answering (PQA) systems are key in e-commerce applications to provide responses to customers' questions as they shop for products. While existing work on PQA focuses mainly on English, in practice there is need to support multiple customer languages while leveraging product information available in English. To study this practical industrial task, we present xPQA, a large-scale annotated cross-lingual PQA dataset in 12 languages across 9 branches, and report results in (1) candidate ranking, to select the best English candidate containing the information to answer a non-English question; and (2) answer generation, to generate a natural-sounding non-English answer based on the selected English candidate. We evaluate various approaches involving machine translation at runtime or offline, leveraging multilingual pre-trained LMs, and including or excluding xPQA training data. We find that (1) In-domain data is essential as cross-lingual rankers trained on other domains perform poorly on the PQA task; (2) Candidate ranking often prefers runtime-translation approaches while answer generation prefers multilingual approaches; (3) Translating offline to augment multilingual models helps candidate ranking mainly on languages with non-Latin scripts; and helps answer generation mainly on languages with Latin scripts. Still, there remains a significant performance gap between the English and the cross-lingual test sets.
African languages have far less in-language content available digitally, making it challenging for question answering systems to satisfy the information needs of users. Cross-lingual open-retrieval question answering (XOR QA) systems -- those that retrieve answer content from other languages while serving people in their native language -- offer a means of filling this gap. To this end, we create AfriQA, the first cross-lingual QA dataset with a focus on African languages. AfriQA includes 12,000+ XOR QA examples across 10 African languages. While previous datasets have focused primarily on languages where cross-lingual QA augments coverage from the target language, AfriQA focuses on languages where cross-lingual answer content is the only high-coverage source of answer content. Because of this, we argue that African languages are one of the most important and realistic use cases for XOR QA. Our experiments demonstrate the poor performance of automatic translation and multilingual retrieval methods. Overall, AfriQA proves challenging for state-of-the-art QA models. We hope that the dataset enables the development of more equitable QA technology.
Various techniques have been developed in recent years to improve dense retrieval (DR), such as unsupervised contrastive learning and pseudo-query generation. Existing DRs, however, often suffer from effectiveness tradeoffs between supervised and zero-shot retrieval, which some argue was due to the limited model capacity. We contradict this hypothesis and show that a generalizable DR can be trained to achieve high accuracy in both supervised and zero-shot retrieval without increasing model size. In particular, we systematically examine the contrastive learning of DRs, under the framework of Data Augmentation (DA). Our study shows that common DA practices such as query augmentation with generative models and pseudo-relevance label creation using a cross-encoder, are often inefficient and sub-optimal. We hence propose a new DA approach with diverse queries and sources of supervision to progressively train a generalizable DR. As a result, DRAGON, our dense retriever trained with diverse augmentation, is the first BERT-base-sized DR to achieve state-of-the-art effectiveness in both supervised and zero-shot evaluations and even competes with models using more complex late interaction (ColBERTv2 and SPLADE++).
Despite their impressive performance on diverse tasks, large language models (LMs) still struggle with tasks requiring rich world knowledge, implying the limitations of relying solely on their parameters to encode a wealth of world knowledge. This paper aims to understand LMs' strengths and limitations in memorizing factual knowledge, by conducting large-scale knowledge probing experiments of 10 models and 4 augmentation methods on PopQA, our new open-domain QA dataset with 14k questions. We find that LMs struggle with less popular factual knowledge, and that scaling fails to appreciably improve memorization of factual knowledge in the tail. We then show that retrieval-augmented LMs largely outperform orders of magnitude larger LMs, while unassisted LMs remain competitive in questions about high-popularity entities. Based on those findings, we devise a simple, yet effective, method for powerful and efficient retrieval-augmented LMs, which retrieves non-parametric memories only when necessary. Experimental results show that this significantly improves models' performance while reducing the inference costs.
While the NLP community is generally aware of resource disparities among languages, we lack research that quantifies the extent and types of such disparity. Prior surveys estimating the availability of resources based on the number of datasets can be misleading as dataset quality varies: many datasets are automatically induced or translated from English data. To provide a more comprehensive picture of language resources, we examine the characteristics of 156 publicly available NLP datasets. We manually annotate how they are created, including input text and label sources and tools used to build them, and what they study, tasks they address and motivations for their creation. After quantifying the qualitative NLP resource gap across languages, we discuss how to improve data collection in low-resource languages. We survey language-proficient NLP researchers and crowd workers per language, finding that their estimated availability correlates with dataset availability. Through crowdsourcing experiments, we identify strategies for collecting high-quality multilingual data on the Mechanical Turk platform. We conclude by making macro and micro-level suggestions to the NLP community and individual researchers for future multilingual data development.
We study the problem of retrieval with instructions, where users of a retrieval system explicitly describe their intent along with their queries, making the system task-aware. We aim to develop a general-purpose task-aware retrieval systems using multi-task instruction tuning that can follow human-written instructions to find the best documents for a given query. To this end, we introduce the first large-scale collection of approximately 40 retrieval datasets with instructions, and present TART, a multi-task retrieval system trained on the diverse retrieval tasks with instructions. TART shows strong capabilities to adapt to a new task via instructions and advances the state of the art on two zero-shot retrieval benchmarks, BEIR and LOTTE, outperforming models up to three times larger. We further introduce a new evaluation setup to better reflect real-world scenarios, pooling diverse documents and tasks. In this setup, TART significantly outperforms competitive baselines, further demonstrating the effectiveness of guiding retrieval with instructions.