Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!

Chrome logo  Add to Chrome

Firefox logo Add to Firefox

"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

Self-supervised Regularization for Text Classification

Mar 24, 2021
Meng Zhou, Zechen Li, Pengtao Xie

Text classification is a widely studied problem and has broad applications. In many real-world problems, the number of texts for training classification models is limited, which renders these models prone to overfitting. To address this problem, we propose SSL-Reg, a data-dependent regularization approach based on self-supervised learning (SSL). SSL is an unsupervised learning approach which defines auxiliary tasks on input data without using any human-provided labels and learns data representations by solving these auxiliary tasks. In SSL-Reg, a supervised classification task and an unsupervised SSL task are performed simultaneously. The SSL task is unsupervised, which is defined purely on input texts without using any human-provided labels. Training a model using an SSL task can prevent the model from being overfitted to a limited number of class labels in the classification task. Experiments on 17 text classification datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

* 16 pages, 3 figures, to be published in Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics 

iCAR: Bridging Image Classification and Image-text Alignment for Visual Recognition

Apr 22, 2022
Yixuan Wei, Yue Cao, Zheng Zhang, Zhuliang Yao, Zhenda Xie, Han Hu, Baining Guo

Image classification, which classifies images by pre-defined categories, has been the dominant approach to visual representation learning over the last decade. Visual learning through image-text alignment, however, has emerged to show promising performance, especially for zero-shot recognition. We believe that these two learning tasks are complementary, and suggest combining them for better visual learning. We propose a deep fusion method with three adaptations that effectively bridge two learning tasks, rather than shallow fusion through naive multi-task learning. First, we modify the previous common practice in image classification, a linear classifier, with a cosine classifier which shows comparable performance. Second, we convert the image classification problem from learning parametric category classifier weights to learning a text encoder as a meta network to generate category classifier weights. The learnt text encoder is shared between image classification and image-text alignment. Third, we enrich each class name with a description to avoid confusion between classes and make the classification method closer to the image-text alignment. We prove that this deep fusion approach performs better on a variety of visual recognition tasks and setups than the individual learning or shallow fusion approach, from zero-shot/few-shot image classification, such as the Kornblith 12-dataset benchmark, to downstream tasks of action recognition, semantic segmentation, and object detection in fine-tuning and open-vocabulary settings. The code will be available at

* 22 pages, 6 figures 

A Robust Contrastive Alignment Method For Multi-Domain Text Classification

Apr 26, 2022
Xuefeng Li, Hao Lei, Liwen Wang, Guanting Dong, Jinzheng Zhao, Jiachi Liu, Weiran Xu, Chunyun Zhang

Multi-domain text classification can automatically classify texts in various scenarios. Due to the diversity of human languages, texts with the same label in different domains may differ greatly, which brings challenges to the multi-domain text classification. Current advanced methods use the private-shared paradigm, capturing domain-shared features by a shared encoder, and training a private encoder for each domain to extract domain-specific features. However, in realistic scenarios, these methods suffer from inefficiency as new domains are constantly emerging. In this paper, we propose a robust contrastive alignment method to align text classification features of various domains in the same feature space by supervised contrastive learning. By this means, we only need two universal feature extractors to achieve multi-domain text classification. Extensive experimental results show that our method performs on par with or sometimes better than the state-of-the-art method, which uses the complex multi-classifier in a private-shared framework.

* Accepted by ICASSP 2022 

ML-Net: multi-label classification of biomedical texts with deep neural networks

Nov 15, 2018
Jingcheng Du, Qingyu Chen, Yifan Peng, Yang Xiang, Cui Tao, Zhiyong Lu

In multi-label text classification, each textual document can be assigned with one or more labels. Due to this nature, the multi-label text classification task is often considered to be more challenging compared to the binary or multi-class text classification problems. As an important task with broad applications in biomedicine such as assigning diagnosis codes, a number of different computational methods (e.g. training and combining binary classifiers for each label) have been proposed in recent years. However, many suffered from modest accuracy and efficiency, with only limited success in practical use. We propose ML-Net, a novel deep learning framework, for multi-label classification of biomedical texts. As an end-to-end system, ML-Net combines a label prediction network with an automated label count prediction mechanism to output an optimal set of labels by leveraging both predicted confidence score of each label and the contextual information in the target document. We evaluate ML-Net on three independent, publicly-available corpora in two kinds of text genres: biomedical literature and clinical notes. For evaluation, example-based measures such as precision, recall and f-measure are used. ML-Net is compared with several competitive machine learning baseline models. Our benchmarking results show that ML-Net compares favorably to the state-of-the-art methods in multi-label classification of biomedical texts. ML-NET is also shown to be robust when evaluated on different text genres in biomedicine. Unlike traditional machine learning methods, ML-Net does not require human efforts in feature engineering and is highly efficient and scalable approach to tasks with a large set of labels (no need to build individual classifiers for each separate label). Finally, ML-NET is able to dynamically estimate the label count based on the document context in a more systematic and accurate manner.


An Innovative Word Encoding Method For Text Classification Using Convolutional Neural Network

Mar 11, 2019
Amr Adel Helmy, Yasser M. K. Omar, Rania Hodhod

Text classification plays a vital role today especially with the intensive use of social networking media. Recently, different architectures of convolutional neural networks have been used for text classification in which one-hot vector, and word embedding methods are commonly used. This paper presents a new language independent word encoding method for text classification. The proposed model converts raw text data to low-level feature dimension with minimal or no preprocessing steps by using a new approach called binary unique number of word "BUNOW". BUNOW allows each unique word to have an integer ID in a dictionary that is represented as a k-dimensional vector of its binary equivalent. The output vector of this encoding is fed into a convolutional neural network (CNN) model for classification. Moreover, the proposed model reduces the neural network parameters, allows faster computation with few network layers, where a word is atomic representation the document as in word level, and decrease memory consumption for character level representation. The provided CNN model is able to work with other languages or multi-lingual text without the need for any changes in the encoding method. The model outperforms the character level and very deep character level CNNs models in terms of accuracy, network parameters, and memory consumption; the results show total classification accuracy 91.99% and error 8.01% using AG's News dataset compared to the state of art methods that have total classification accuracy 91.45% and error 8.55%, in addition to the reduction in input feature vector and neural network parameters by 62% and 34%, respectively.

* Accepted @ 14th International Computer Engineering Conference (ICENCO2018), Faculty of Engineering , Cairo University, Egypt, Dec. 29-30, 2018 

What Have Been Learned & What Should Be Learned? An Empirical Study of How to Selectively Augment Text for Classification

Sep 01, 2021
Biyang Guo, Sonqiao Han, Hailiang Huang

Text augmentation techniques are widely used in text classification problems to improve the performance of classifiers, especially in low-resource scenarios. Whilst lots of creative text augmentation methods have been designed, they augment the text in a non-selective manner, which means the less important or noisy words have the same chances to be augmented as the informative words, and thereby limits the performance of augmentation. In this work, we systematically summarize three kinds of role keywords, which have different functions for text classification, and design effective methods to extract them from the text. Based on these extracted role keywords, we propose STA (Selective Text Augmentation) to selectively augment the text, where the informative, class-indicating words are emphasized but the irrelevant or noisy words are diminished. Extensive experiments on four English and Chinese text classification benchmark datasets demonstrate that STA can substantially outperform the non-selective text augmentation methods.


InducT-GCN: Inductive Graph Convolutional Networks for Text Classification

Jun 01, 2022
Kunze Wang, Soyeon Caren Han, Josiah Poon

Text classification aims to assign labels to textual units by making use of global information. Recent studies have applied graph neural network (GNN) to capture the global word co-occurrence in a corpus. Existing approaches require that all the nodes (training and test) in a graph are present during training, which are transductive and do not naturally generalise to unseen nodes. To make those models inductive, they use extra resources, like pretrained word embedding. However, high-quality resource is not always available and hard to train. Under the extreme settings with no extra resource and limited amount of training set, can we still learn an inductive graph-based text classification model? In this paper, we introduce a novel inductive graph-based text classification framework, InducT-GCN (InducTive Graph Convolutional Networks for Text classification). Compared to transductive models that require test documents in training, we construct a graph based on the statistics of training documents only and represent document vectors with a weighted sum of word vectors. We then conduct one-directional GCN propagation during testing. Across five text classification benchmarks, our InducT-GCN outperformed state-of-the-art methods that are either transductive in nature or pre-trained additional resources. We also conducted scalability testing by gradually increasing the data size and revealed that our InducT-GCN can reduce the time and space complexity. The code is available on:

* ICPR 2022 

Weakly-Supervised Hierarchical Text Classification

Dec 29, 2018
Yu Meng, Jiaming Shen, Chao Zhang, Jiawei Han

Hierarchical text classification, which aims to classify text documents into a given hierarchy, is an important task in many real-world applications. Recently, deep neural models are gaining increasing popularity for text classification due to their expressive power and minimum requirement for feature engineering. However, applying deep neural networks for hierarchical text classification remains challenging, because they heavily rely on a large amount of training data and meanwhile cannot easily determine appropriate levels of documents in the hierarchical setting. In this paper, we propose a weakly-supervised neural method for hierarchical text classification. Our method does not require a large amount of training data but requires only easy-to-provide weak supervision signals such as a few class-related documents or keywords. Our method effectively leverages such weak supervision signals to generate pseudo documents for model pre-training, and then performs self-training on real unlabeled data to iteratively refine the model. During the training process, our model features a hierarchical neural structure, which mimics the given hierarchy and is capable of determining the proper levels for documents with a blocking mechanism. Experiments on three datasets from different domains demonstrate the efficacy of our method compared with a comprehensive set of baselines.

* AAAI 2019 

Incorporating Visual Layout Structures for Scientific Text Classification

Jun 21, 2021
Zejiang Shen, Kyle Lo, Lucy Lu Wang, Bailey Kuehl, Daniel S. Weld, Doug Downey

Classifying the core textual components of a scientific paper-title, author, body text, etc.-is a critical first step in automated scientific document understanding. Previous work has shown how using elementary layout information, i.e., each token's 2D position on the page, leads to more accurate classification. We introduce new methods for incorporating VIsual LAyout (VILA) structures, e.g., the grouping of page texts into text lines or text blocks, into language models to further improve performance. We show that the I-VILA approach, which simply adds special tokens denoting the boundaries of layout structures into model inputs, can lead to 1.9% Macro F1 improvements for token classification. Moreover, we design a hierarchical model, H-VILA, that encodes the text based on layout structures and record an up-to 47% inference time reduction with less than 1.5% Macro F1 loss for the text classification models. Experiments are conducted on a newly curated evaluation suite, S2-VLUE, with a novel metric measuring classification uniformity within visual groups and a new dataset of gold annotations covering papers from 19 scientific disciplines. Pre-trained weights, benchmark datasets, and source code will be available at

* 13 pages, 4 figures, 6 tables