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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

CDM: Combining Extraction and Generation for Definition Modeling

Nov 14, 2021
Jie Huang, Hanyin Shao, Kevin Chen-Chuan Chang

Definitions are essential for term understanding. Recently, there is an increasing interest in extracting and generating definitions of terms automatically. However, existing approaches for this task are either extractive or abstractive - definitions are either extracted from a corpus or generated by a language generation model. In this paper, we propose to combine extraction and generation for definition modeling: first extract self- and correlative definitional information of target terms from the Web and then generate the final definitions by incorporating the extracted definitional information. Experiments demonstrate our framework can generate high-quality definitions for technical terms and outperform state-of-the-art models for definition modeling significantly.

  
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Joint Biomedical Entity and Relation Extraction with Knowledge-Enhanced Collective Inference

Jun 01, 2021
Tuan Lai, Heng Ji, ChengXiang Zhai, Quan Hung Tran

Compared to the general news domain, information extraction (IE) from biomedical text requires much broader domain knowledge. However, many previous IE methods do not utilize any external knowledge during inference. Due to the exponential growth of biomedical publications, models that do not go beyond their fixed set of parameters will likely fall behind. Inspired by how humans look up relevant information to comprehend a scientific text, we present a novel framework that utilizes external knowledge for joint entity and relation extraction named KECI (Knowledge-Enhanced Collective Inference). Given an input text, KECI first constructs an initial span graph representing its initial understanding of the text. It then uses an entity linker to form a knowledge graph containing relevant background knowledge for the the entity mentions in the text. To make the final predictions, KECI fuses the initial span graph and the knowledge graph into a more refined graph using an attention mechanism. KECI takes a collective approach to link mention spans to entities by integrating global relational information into local representations using graph convolutional networks. Our experimental results show that the framework is highly effective, achieving new state-of-the-art results in two different benchmark datasets: BioRelEx (binding interaction detection) and ADE (adverse drug event extraction). For example, KECI achieves absolute improvements of 4.59% and 4.91% in F1 scores over the state-of-the-art on the BioRelEx entity and relation extraction tasks.

* Accepted by ACL 2021 
  
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Full Transformer Framework for Robust Point Cloud Registration with Deep Information Interaction

Dec 17, 2021
Guangyan Chen, Meiling Wang, Yufeng Yue, Qingxiang Zhang, Li Yuan

Recent Transformer-based methods have achieved advanced performance in point cloud registration by utilizing advantages of the Transformer in order-invariance and modeling dependency to aggregate information. However, they still suffer from indistinct feature extraction, sensitivity to noise, and outliers. The reasons are: (1) the adoption of CNNs fails to model global relations due to their local receptive fields, resulting in extracted features susceptible to noise; (2) the shallow-wide architecture of Transformers and lack of positional encoding lead to indistinct feature extraction due to inefficient information interaction; (3) the omission of geometrical compatibility leads to inaccurate classification between inliers and outliers. To address above limitations, a novel full Transformer network for point cloud registration is proposed, named the Deep Interaction Transformer (DIT), which incorporates: (1) a Point Cloud Structure Extractor (PSE) to model global relations and retrieve structural information with Transformer encoders; (2) a deep-narrow Point Feature Transformer (PFT) to facilitate deep information interaction across two point clouds with positional encoding, such that Transformers can establish comprehensive associations and directly learn relative position between points; (3) a Geometric Matching-based Correspondence Confidence Evaluation (GMCCE) method to measure spatial consistency and estimate inlier confidence by designing the triangulated descriptor. Extensive experiments on clean, noisy, partially overlapping point cloud registration demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

* 10pages, 7figures 
  
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Boosting Span-based Joint Entity and Relation Extraction via Squence Tagging Mechanism

May 21, 2021
Bin Ji, Shasha Li, Jie Yu, Jun Ma, Huijun Liu

Span-based joint extraction simultaneously conducts named entity recognition (NER) and relation extraction (RE) in text span form. Recent studies have shown that token labels can convey crucial task-specific information and enrich token semantics. However, as far as we know, due to completely abstain from sequence tagging mechanism, all prior span-based work fails to use token label in-formation. To solve this problem, we pro-pose Sequence Tagging enhanced Span-based Network (STSN), a span-based joint extrac-tion network that is enhanced by token BIO label information derived from sequence tag-ging based NER. By stacking multiple atten-tion layers in depth, we design a deep neu-ral architecture to build STSN, and each atten-tion layer consists of three basic attention units. The deep neural architecture first learns seman-tic representations for token labels and span-based joint extraction, and then constructs in-formation interactions between them, which also realizes bidirectional information interac-tions between span-based NER and RE. Fur-thermore, we extend the BIO tagging scheme to make STSN can extract overlapping en-tity. Experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our model consistently outperforms previous optimal models by a large margin, creating new state-of-the-art results.

* 10pages, 6 figures, 4 tables 
  
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A Novel Biologically Mechanism-Based Visual Cognition Model--Automatic Extraction of Semantics, Formation of Integrated Concepts and Re-selection Features for Ambiguity

Mar 25, 2016
Peijie Yin, Hong Qiao, Wei Wu, Lu Qi, YinLin Li, Shanlin Zhong, Bo Zhang

Integration between biology and information science benefits both fields. Many related models have been proposed, such as computational visual cognition models, computational motor control models, integrations of both and so on. In general, the robustness and precision of recognition is one of the key problems for object recognition models. In this paper, inspired by features of human recognition process and their biological mechanisms, a new integrated and dynamic framework is proposed to mimic the semantic extraction, concept formation and feature re-selection in human visual processing. The main contributions of the proposed model are as follows: (1) Semantic feature extraction: Local semantic features are learnt from episodic features that are extracted from raw images through a deep neural network; (2) Integrated concept formation: Concepts are formed with local semantic information and structural information learnt through network. (3) Feature re-selection: When ambiguity is detected during recognition process, distinctive features according to the difference between ambiguous candidates are re-selected for recognition. Experimental results on hand-written digits and facial shape dataset show that, compared with other methods, the new proposed model exhibits higher robustness and precision for visual recognition, especially in the condition when input samples are smantic ambiguous. Meanwhile, the introduced biological mechanisms further strengthen the interaction between neuroscience and information science.

  
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Text Extraction and Retrieval from Smartphone Screenshots: Building a Repository for Life in Media

Jan 04, 2018
Agnese Chiatti, Mu Jung Cho, Anupriya Gagneja, Xiao Yang, Miriam Brinberg, Katie Roehrick, Sagnik Ray Choudhury, Nilam Ram, Byron Reeves, C. Lee Giles

Daily engagement in life experiences is increasingly interwoven with mobile device use. Screen capture at the scale of seconds is being used in behavioral studies and to implement "just-in-time" health interventions. The increasing psychological breadth of digital information will continue to make the actual screens that people view a preferred if not required source of data about life experiences. Effective and efficient Information Extraction and Retrieval from digital screenshots is a crucial prerequisite to successful use of screen data. In this paper, we present the experimental workflow we exploited to: (i) pre-process a unique collection of screen captures, (ii) extract unstructured text embedded in the images, (iii) organize image text and metadata based on a structured schema, (iv) index the resulting document collection, and (v) allow for Image Retrieval through a dedicated vertical search engine application. The adopted procedure integrates different open source libraries for traditional image processing, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), and Image Retrieval. Our aim is to assess whether and how state-of-the-art methodologies can be applied to this novel data set. We show how combining OpenCV-based pre-processing modules with a Long short-term memory (LSTM) based release of Tesseract OCR, without ad hoc training, led to a 74% character-level accuracy of the extracted text. Further, we used the processed repository as baseline for a dedicated Image Retrieval system, for the immediate use and application for behavioral and prevention scientists. We discuss issues of Text Information Extraction and Retrieval that are particular to the screenshot image case and suggest important future work.

  
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Explaining black-box text classifiers for disease-treatment information extraction

Oct 21, 2020
Milad Moradi, Matthias Samwald

Deep neural networks and other intricate Artificial Intelligence (AI) models have reached high levels of accuracy on many biomedical natural language processing tasks. However, their applicability in real-world use cases may be limited due to their vague inner working and decision logic. A post-hoc explanation method can approximate the behavior of a black-box AI model by extracting relationships between feature values and outcomes. In this paper, we introduce a post-hoc explanation method that utilizes confident itemsets to approximate the behavior of black-box classifiers for medical information extraction. Incorporating medical concepts and semantics into the explanation process, our explanator finds semantic relations between inputs and outputs in different parts of the decision space of a black-box classifier. The experimental results show that our explanation method can outperform perturbation and decision set based explanators in terms of fidelity and interpretability of explanations produced for predictions on a disease-treatment information extraction task.

  
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Distantly-Supervised Neural Relation Extraction with Side Information using BERT

May 10, 2020
Johny Moreira, Chaina Oliveira, David Macêdo, Cleber Zanchettin, Luciano Barbosa

Relation extraction (RE) consists in categorizing the relationship between entities in a sentence. A recent paradigm to develop relation extractors is Distant Supervision (DS), which allows the automatic creation of new datasets by taking an alignment between a text corpus and a Knowledge Base (KB). KBs can sometimes also provide additional information to the RE task. One of the methods that adopt this strategy is the RESIDE model, which proposes a distantly-supervised neural relation extraction using side information from KBs. Considering that this method outperformed state-of-the-art baselines, in this paper, we propose a related approach to RESIDE also using additional side information, but simplifying the sentence encoding with BERT embeddings. Through experiments, we show the effectiveness of the proposed method in Google Distant Supervision and Riedel datasets concerning the BGWA and RESIDE baseline methods. Although Area Under the Curve is decreased because of unbalanced datasets, [email protected] results have shown that the use of BERT as sentence encoding allows superior performance to baseline methods.

  
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Video Summarization using Keyframe Extraction and Video Skimming

Oct 10, 2019
Shruti Jadon, Mahmood Jasim

Video is one of the robust sources of information and the consumption of online and offline videos has reached an unprecedented level in the last few years. A fundamental challenge of extracting information from videos is a viewer has to go through the complete video to understand the context, as opposed to an image where the viewer can extract information from a single frame. In this work, we attempt to employ different Algorithmic methodologies including local features and deep neural networks along with multiple clustering methods to find an effective way of summarizing a video by interesting keyframe extraction.

* 5 pages, 3 figures. Technical Report 
  
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