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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

Information Extraction - A User Guide

Feb 11, 1997
Hamish Cunningham

This technical memo describes Information Extraction from the point-of-view of a potential user of the technology. No knowledge of language processing is assumed. Information Extraction is a process which takes unseen texts as input and produces fixed-format, unambiguous data as output. This data may be used directly for display to users, or may be stored in a database or spreadsheet for later analysis, or may be used for indexing purposes in Information Retrieval applications. See also http://www.dcs.shef.ac.uk/~hamish

* LaTeX2e with PostScript figures, 17 pages (figures replaced with smaller versions) 
  
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Hybrid Attention-Based Transformer Block Model for Distant Supervision Relation Extraction

Mar 26, 2020
Yan Xiao, Yaochu Jin, Ran Cheng, Kuangrong Hao

With an exponential explosive growth of various digital text information, it is challenging to efficiently obtain specific knowledge from massive unstructured text information. As one basic task for natural language processing (NLP), relation extraction aims to extract the semantic relation between entity pairs based on the given text. To avoid manual labeling of datasets, distant supervision relation extraction (DSRE) has been widely used, aiming to utilize knowledge base to automatically annotate datasets. Unfortunately, this method heavily suffers from wrong labelling due to the underlying strong assumptions. To address this issue, we propose a new framework using hybrid attention-based Transformer block with multi-instance learning to perform the DSRE task. More specifically, the Transformer block is firstly used as the sentence encoder to capture syntactic information of sentences, which mainly utilizes multi-head self-attention to extract features from word level. Then, a more concise sentence-level attention mechanism is adopted to constitute the bag representation, aiming to incorporate valid information of each sentence to effectively represent the bag. Experimental results on the public dataset New York Times (NYT) demonstrate that the proposed approach can outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms on the evaluation dataset, which verifies the effectiveness of our model for the DSRE task.

  
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DocReader: Bounding-Box Free Training of a Document Information Extraction Model

May 10, 2021
Shachar Klaiman, Marius Lehne

Information extraction from documents is a ubiquitous first step in many business applications. During this step, the entries of various fields must first be read from the images of scanned documents before being further processed and inserted into the corresponding databases. While many different methods have been developed over the past years in order to automate the above extraction step, they all share the requirement of bounding-box or text segment annotations of their training documents. In this work we present DocReader, an end-to-end neural-network-based information extraction solution which can be trained using solely the images and the target values that need to be read. The DocReader can thus leverage existing historical extraction data, completely eliminating the need for any additional annotations beyond what is naturally available in existing human-operated service centres. We demonstrate that the DocReader can reach and surpass other methods which require bounding-boxes for training, as well as provide a clear path for continual learning during its deployment in production.

  
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Integrating diverse extraction pathways using iterative predictions for Multilingual Open Information Extraction

Oct 15, 2021
Bhushan Kotnis, Kiril Gashteovski, Carolin Lawrence, Daniel Oñoro Rubio, Vanesa Rodriguez-Tembras, Makoto Takamoto, Mathias Niepert

In this paper we investigate a simple hypothesis for the Open Information Extraction (OpenIE) task, that it may be easier to extract some elements of an triple if the extraction is conditioned on prior extractions which may be easier to extract. We successfully exploit this and propose a neural multilingual OpenIE system that iteratively extracts triples by conditioning extractions on different elements of the triple leading to a rich set of extractions. The iterative nature of MiLIE also allows for seamlessly integrating rule based extraction systems with a neural end-to-end system leading to improved performance. MiLIE outperforms SOTA systems on multiple languages ranging from Chinese to Galician thanks to it's ability of combining multiple extraction pathways. Our analysis confirms that it is indeed true that certain elements of an extraction are easier to extract than others. Finally, we introduce OpenIE evaluation datasets for two low resource languages namely Japanese and Galician.

  
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Generating Informative CVE Description From ExploitDB Posts by Extractive Summarization

Jan 05, 2021
Jiamou Sun, Zhenchang Xing, Hao Guo, Deheng Ye, Xiaohong Li, Xiwei Xu, Liming Zhu

ExploitDB is one of the important public websites, which contributes a large number of vulnerabilities to official CVE database. Over 60\% of these vulnerabilities have high- or critical-security risks. Unfortunately, over 73\% of exploits appear publicly earlier than the corresponding CVEs, and about 40\% of exploits do not even have CVEs. To assist in documenting CVEs for the ExploitDB posts, we propose an open information method to extract 9 key vulnerability aspects (vulnerable product/version/component, vulnerability type, vendor, attacker type, root cause, attack vector and impact) from the verbose and noisy ExploitDB posts. The extracted aspects from an ExploitDB post are then composed into a CVE description according to the suggested CVE description templates, which is must-provided information for requesting new CVEs. Through the evaluation on 13,017 manually labeled sentences and the statistically sampling of 3,456 extracted aspects, we confirm the high accuracy of our extraction method. Compared with 27,230 reference CVE descriptions. Our composed CVE descriptions achieve high ROUGH-L (0.38), a longest common subsequence based metric for evaluating text summarization methods.

  
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COfEE: A Comprehensive Ontology for Event Extraction from text, with an online annotation tool

Aug 01, 2021
Ali Balali, Masoud Asadpour, Seyed Hossein Jafari

Data is published on the web over time in great volumes, but majority of the data is unstructured, making it hard to understand and difficult to interpret. Information Extraction (IE) methods extract structured information from unstructured data. One of the challenging IE tasks is Event Extraction (EE) which seeks to derive information about specific incidents and their actors from the text. EE is useful in many domains such as building a knowledge base, information retrieval, summarization and online monitoring systems. In the past decades, some event ontologies like ACE, CAMEO and ICEWS were developed to define event forms, actors and dimensions of events observed in the text. These event ontologies still have some shortcomings such as covering only a few topics like political events, having inflexible structure in defining argument roles, lack of analytical dimensions, and complexity in choosing event sub-types. To address these concerns, we propose an event ontology, namely COfEE, that incorporates both expert domain knowledge, previous ontologies and a data-driven approach for identifying events from text. COfEE consists of two hierarchy levels (event types and event sub-types) that include new categories relating to environmental issues, cyberspace, criminal activity and natural disasters which need to be monitored instantly. Also, dynamic roles according to each event sub-type are defined to capture various dimensions of events. In a follow-up experiment, the proposed ontology is evaluated on Wikipedia events, and it is shown to be general and comprehensive. Moreover, in order to facilitate the preparation of gold-standard data for event extraction, a language-independent online tool is presented based on COfEE.

  
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Relation extraction between the clinical entities based on the shortest dependency path based LSTM

Mar 24, 2019
Dhanachandra Ningthoujam, Shweta Yadav, Pushpak Bhattacharyya, Asif Ekbal

Owing to the exponential rise in the electronic medical records, information extraction in this domain is becoming an important area of research in recent years. Relation extraction between the medical concepts such as medical problem, treatment, and test etc. is also one of the most important tasks in this area. In this paper, we present an efficient relation extraction system based on the shortest dependency path (SDP) generated from the dependency parsed tree of the sentence. Instead of relying on many handcrafted features and the whole sequence of tokens present in a sentence, our system relies only on the SDP between the target entities. For every pair of entities, the system takes only the words in the SDP, their dependency labels, Part-of-Speech information and the types of the entities as the input. We develop a dependency parser for extracting dependency information. We perform our experiments on the benchmark i2b2 dataset for clinical relation extraction challenge 2010. Experimental results show that our system outperforms the existing systems.

  
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Span Based Open Information Extraction

Mar 01, 2019
Junlang Zhan, Hai Zhao

In this paper, we propose a span based model combined with syntactic information for n-ary open information extraction. The advantage of span model is that it can leverage span level features, which is difficult in token based BIO tagging methods. We also improve the previous bootstrap method to construct training corpus. Experiments show that our model outperforms previous open information extraction systems. Our code and data are publicly available at https://github.com/zhanjunlang/Span_OIE

* There is an error in this article. In section 2.2, we state that span level syntactic information is helpful for Open IE, which is one of major contribution of this paper. However, after our examination, there is a fatal error in the code for this part so the statement is not true 
  
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