We introduce PoseGPT, a framework employing Large Language Models (LLMs) to understand and reason about 3D human poses from images or textual descriptions. Our work is motivated by the human ability to intuitively understand postures from a single image or a brief description, a process that intertwines image interpretation, world knowledge, and an understanding of body language. Traditional human pose estimation methods, whether image-based or text-based, often lack holistic scene comprehension and nuanced reasoning, leading to a disconnect between visual data and its real-world implications. PoseGPT addresses these limitations by embedding SMPL poses as a distinct signal token within a multi-modal LLM, enabling direct generation of 3D body poses from both textual and visual inputs. This approach not only simplifies pose prediction but also empowers LLMs to apply their world knowledge in reasoning about human poses, fostering two advanced tasks: speculative pose generation and reasoning about pose estimation. These tasks involve reasoning about humans to generate 3D poses from subtle text queries, possibly accompanied by images. We establish benchmarks for these tasks, moving beyond traditional 3D pose generation and estimation methods. Our results show that PoseGPT outperforms existing multimodal LLMs and task-sepcific methods on these newly proposed tasks. Furthermore, PoseGPT's ability to understand and generate 3D human poses based on complex reasoning opens new directions in human pose analysis.
Large foundation models are becoming ubiquitous, but training them from scratch is prohibitively expensive. Thus, efficiently adapting these powerful models to downstream tasks is increasingly important. In this paper, we study a principled finetuning paradigm -- Orthogonal Finetuning (OFT) -- for downstream task adaptation. Despite demonstrating good generalizability, OFT still uses a fairly large number of trainable parameters due to the high dimensionality of orthogonal matrices. To address this, we start by examining OFT from an information transmission perspective, and then identify a few key desiderata that enable better parameter-efficiency. Inspired by how the Cooley-Tukey fast Fourier transform algorithm enables efficient information transmission, we propose an efficient orthogonal parameterization using butterfly structures. We apply this parameterization to OFT, creating a novel parameter-efficient finetuning method, called Orthogonal Butterfly (BOFT). By subsuming OFT as a special case, BOFT introduces a generalized orthogonal finetuning framework. Finally, we conduct an extensive empirical study of adapting large vision transformers, large language models, and text-to-image diffusion models to various downstream tasks in vision and language.
The creation of photorealistic virtual worlds requires the accurate modeling of 3D surface geometry for a wide range of objects. For this, meshes are appealing since they 1) enable fast physics-based rendering with realistic material and lighting, 2) support physical simulation, and 3) are memory-efficient for modern graphics pipelines. Recent work on reconstructing and statistically modeling 3D shape, however, has critiqued meshes as being topologically inflexible. To capture a wide range of object shapes, any 3D representation must be able to model solid, watertight, shapes as well as thin, open, surfaces. Recent work has focused on the former, and methods for reconstructing open surfaces do not support fast reconstruction with material and lighting or unconditional generative modelling. Inspired by the observation that open surfaces can be seen as islands floating on watertight surfaces, we parameterize open surfaces by defining a manifold signed distance field on watertight templates. With this parameterization, we further develop a grid-based and differentiable representation that parameterizes both watertight and non-watertight meshes of arbitrary topology. Our new representation, called Ghost-on-the-Shell (G-Shell), enables two important applications: differentiable rasterization-based reconstruction from multiview images and generative modelling of non-watertight meshes. We empirically demonstrate that G-Shell achieves state-of-the-art performance on non-watertight mesh reconstruction and generation tasks, while also performing effectively for watertight meshes.
In this paper, we focus on a general yet important learning problem, pairwise similarity learning (PSL). PSL subsumes a wide range of important applications, such as open-set face recognition, speaker verification, image retrieval and person re-identification. The goal of PSL is to learn a pairwise similarity function assigning a higher similarity score to positive pairs (i.e., a pair of samples with the same label) than to negative pairs (i.e., a pair of samples with different label). We start by identifying a key desideratum for PSL, and then discuss how existing methods can achieve this desideratum. We then propose a surprisingly simple proxy-free method, called SimPLE, which requires neither feature/proxy normalization nor angular margin and yet is able to generalize well in open-set recognition. We apply the proposed method to three challenging PSL tasks: open-set face recognition, image retrieval and speaker verification. Comprehensive experimental results on large-scale benchmarks show that our method performs significantly better than current state-of-the-art methods.
Our goal is to create a realistic 3D facial avatar with hair and accessories using only a text description. While this challenge has attracted significant recent interest, existing methods either lack realism, produce unrealistic shapes, or do not support editing, such as modifications to the hairstyle. We argue that existing methods are limited because they employ a monolithic modeling approach, using a single representation for the head, face, hair, and accessories. Our observation is that the hair and face, for example, have very different structural qualities that benefit from different representations. Building on this insight, we generate avatars with a compositional model, in which the head, face, and upper body are represented with traditional 3D meshes, and the hair, clothing, and accessories with neural radiance fields (NeRF). The model-based mesh representation provides a strong geometric prior for the face region, improving realism while enabling editing of the person's appearance. By using NeRFs to represent the remaining components, our method is able to model and synthesize parts with complex geometry and appearance, such as curly hair and fluffy scarves. Our novel system synthesizes these high-quality compositional avatars from text descriptions. The experimental results demonstrate that our method, Text-guided generation and Editing of Compositional Avatars (TECA), produces avatars that are more realistic than those of recent methods while being editable because of their compositional nature. For example, our TECA enables the seamless transfer of compositional features like hairstyles, scarves, and other accessories between avatars. This capability supports applications such as virtual try-on.
Tremendous efforts have been made to learn animatable and photorealistic human avatars. Towards this end, both explicit and implicit 3D representations are heavily studied for a holistic modeling and capture of the whole human (e.g., body, clothing, face and hair), but neither representation is an optimal choice in terms of representation efficacy since different parts of the human avatar have different modeling desiderata. For example, meshes are generally not suitable for modeling clothing and hair. Motivated by this, we present Disentangled Avatars~(DELTA), which models humans with hybrid explicit-implicit 3D representations. DELTA takes a monocular RGB video as input, and produces a human avatar with separate body and clothing/hair layers. Specifically, we demonstrate two important applications for DELTA. For the first one, we consider the disentanglement of the human body and clothing and in the second, we disentangle the face and hair. To do so, DELTA represents the body or face with an explicit mesh-based parametric 3D model and the clothing or hair with an implicit neural radiance field. To make this possible, we design an end-to-end differentiable renderer that integrates meshes into volumetric rendering, enabling DELTA to learn directly from monocular videos without any 3D supervision. Finally, we show that how these two applications can be easily combined to model full-body avatars, such that the hair, face, body and clothing can be fully disentangled yet jointly rendered. Such a disentanglement enables hair and clothing transfer to arbitrary body shapes. We empirically validate the effectiveness of DELTA's disentanglement by demonstrating its promising performance on disentangled reconstruction, virtual clothing try-on and hairstyle transfer. To facilitate future research, we also release an open-sourced pipeline for the study of hybrid human avatar modeling.
Large text-to-image diffusion models have impressive capabilities in generating photorealistic images from text prompts. How to effectively guide or control these powerful models to perform different downstream tasks becomes an important open problem. To tackle this challenge, we introduce a principled finetuning method -- Orthogonal Finetuning (OFT), for adapting text-to-image diffusion models to downstream tasks. Unlike existing methods, OFT can provably preserve hyperspherical energy which characterizes the pairwise neuron relationship on the unit hypersphere. We find that this property is crucial for preserving the semantic generation ability of text-to-image diffusion models. To improve finetuning stability, we further propose Constrained Orthogonal Finetuning (COFT) which imposes an additional radius constraint to the hypersphere. Specifically, we consider two important finetuning text-to-image tasks: subject-driven generation where the goal is to generate subject-specific images given a few images of a subject and a text prompt, and controllable generation where the goal is to enable the model to take in additional control signals. We empirically show that our OFT framework outperforms existing methods in generation quality and convergence speed.
Event extraction (EE) is a crucial task aiming at extracting events from texts, which includes two subtasks: event detection (ED) and event argument extraction (EAE). In this paper, we check the reliability of EE evaluations and identify three major pitfalls: (1) The data preprocessing discrepancy makes the evaluation results on the same dataset not directly comparable, but the data preprocessing details are not widely noted and specified in papers. (2) The output space discrepancy of different model paradigms makes different-paradigm EE models lack grounds for comparison and also leads to unclear mapping issues between predictions and annotations. (3) The absence of pipeline evaluation of many EAE-only works makes them hard to be directly compared with EE works and may not well reflect the model performance in real-world pipeline scenarios. We demonstrate the significant influence of these pitfalls through comprehensive meta-analyses of recent papers and empirical experiments. To avoid these pitfalls, we suggest a series of remedies, including specifying data preprocessing, standardizing outputs, and providing pipeline evaluation results. To help implement these remedies, we develop a consistent evaluation framework OMNIEVENT, which can be obtained from https://github.com/THU-KEG/OmniEvent.
We consider the task of generating realistic 3D shapes, which is useful for a variety of applications such as automatic scene generation and physical simulation. Compared to other 3D representations like voxels and point clouds, meshes are more desirable in practice, because (1) they enable easy and arbitrary manipulation of shapes for relighting and simulation, and (2) they can fully leverage the power of modern graphics pipelines which are mostly optimized for meshes. Previous scalable methods for generating meshes typically rely on sub-optimal post-processing, and they tend to produce overly-smooth or noisy surfaces without fine-grained geometric details. To overcome these shortcomings, we take advantage of the graph structure of meshes and use a simple yet very effective generative modeling method to generate 3D meshes. Specifically, we represent meshes with deformable tetrahedral grids, and then train a diffusion model on this direct parametrization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our model on multiple generative tasks.
* Published in ICLR 2023 (Spotlight, Notable-top-25%)