To obtain high-quality positron emission tomography (PET) images while minimizing radiation exposure, various methods have been proposed for reconstructing standard-dose PET (SPET) images from low-dose PET (LPET) sinograms directly. However, current methods often neglect boundaries during sinogram-to-image reconstruction, resulting in high-frequency distortion in the frequency domain and diminished or fuzzy edges in the reconstructed images. Furthermore, the convolutional architectures, which are commonly used, lack the ability to model long-range non-local interactions, potentially leading to inaccurate representations of global structures. To alleviate these problems, we propose a transformer-based model that unites triple domains of sinogram, image, and frequency for direct PET reconstruction, namely TriDo-Former. Specifically, the TriDo-Former consists of two cascaded networks, i.e., a sinogram enhancement transformer (SE-Former) for denoising the input LPET sinograms and a spatial-spectral reconstruction transformer (SSR-Former) for reconstructing SPET images from the denoised sinograms. Different from the vanilla transformer that splits an image into 2D patches, based specifically on the PET imaging mechanism, our SE-Former divides the sinogram into 1D projection view angles to maintain its inner-structure while denoising, preventing the noise in the sinogram from prorogating into the image domain. Moreover, to mitigate high-frequency distortion and improve reconstruction details, we integrate global frequency parsers (GFPs) into SSR-Former. The GFP serves as a learnable frequency filter that globally adjusts the frequency components in the frequency domain, enforcing the network to restore high-frequency details resembling real SPET images. Validations on a clinical dataset demonstrate that our TriDo-Former outperforms the state-of-the-art methods qualitatively and quantitatively.
Automated tongue image segmentation in tongue images is a challenging task for two reasons: 1) there are many pathological details on the tongue surface, which affect the extraction of the boundary; 2) the shapes of the tongues captured from various persons (with different diseases) are quite different. To deal with the challenge, a novel end-to-end Boundary Guidance Hierarchical Network (BGHNet) with a new hybrid loss is proposed in this paper. In the new approach, firstly Context Feature Encoder Module (CFEM) is built upon the bottomup pathway to confront with the shrinkage of the receptive field. Secondly, a novel hierarchical recurrent feature fusion module (HRFFM) is adopt to progressively and hierarchically refine object maps to recover image details by integrating local context information. Finally, the proposed hybrid loss in a four hierarchy-pixel, patch, map and boundary guides the network to effectively segment the tongue regions and accurate tongue boundaries. BGHNet is applied to a set of tongue images. The experimental results suggest that the proposed approach can achieve the latest tongue segmentation performance. And in the meantime, the lightweight network contains only 15.45M parameters and performs only 11.22GFLOPS.