Neural fields, mapping low-dimensional input coordinates to corresponding signals, have shown promising results in representing various signals. Numerous methodologies have been proposed, and techniques employing MLPs and grid representations have achieved substantial success. MLPs allow compact and high expressibility, yet often suffer from spectral bias and slow convergence speed. On the other hand, methods using grids are free from spectral bias and achieve fast training speed, however, at the expense of high spatial complexity. In this work, we propose a novel way for exploiting both MLPs and grid representations in neural fields. Unlike the prevalent methods that combine them sequentially (extract features from the grids first and feed them to the MLP), we inject spectral bias-free grid representations into the intermediate features in the MLP. More specifically, we suggest a Coordinate-Aware Modulation (CAM), which modulates the intermediate features using scale and shift parameters extracted from the grid representations. This can maintain the strengths of MLPs while mitigating any remaining potential biases, facilitating the rapid learning of high-frequency components. In addition, we empirically found that the feature normalizations, which have not been successful in neural filed literature, proved to be effective when applied in conjunction with the proposed CAM. Experimental results demonstrate that CAM enhances the performance of neural representation and improves learning stability across a range of signals. Especially in the novel view synthesis task, we achieved state-of-the-art performance with the least number of parameters and fast training speed for dynamic scenes and the best performance under 1MB memory for static scenes. CAM also outperforms the best-performing video compression methods using neural fields by a large margin.
Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs) have demonstrated remarkable potential in capturing complex 3D scenes with high fidelity. However, one persistent challenge that hinders the widespread adoption of NeRFs is the computational bottleneck due to the volumetric rendering. On the other hand, 3D Gaussian splatting (3DGS) has recently emerged as an alternative representation that leverages a 3D Gaussisan-based representation and adopts the rasterization pipeline to render the images rather than volumetric rendering, achieving very fast rendering speed and promising image quality. However, a significant drawback arises as 3DGS entails a substantial number of 3D Gaussians to maintain the high fidelity of the rendered images, which requires a large amount of memory and storage. To address this critical issue, we place a specific emphasis on two key objectives: reducing the number of Gaussian points without sacrificing performance and compressing the Gaussian attributes, such as view-dependent color and covariance. To this end, we propose a learnable mask strategy that significantly reduces the number of Gaussians while preserving high performance. In addition, we propose a compact but effective representation of view-dependent color by employing a grid-based neural field rather than relying on spherical harmonics. Finally, we learn codebooks to compactly represent the geometric attributes of Gaussian by vector quantization. In our extensive experiments, we consistently show over 10$\times$ reduced storage and enhanced rendering speed, while maintaining the quality of the scene representation, compared to 3DGS. Our work provides a comprehensive framework for 3D scene representation, achieving high performance, fast training, compactness, and real-time rendering. Our project page is available at https://maincold2.github.io/c3dgs/.
Neural fields, also known as coordinate-based or implicit neural representations, have shown a remarkable capability of representing, generating, and manipulating various forms of signals. For video representations, however, mapping pixel-wise coordinates to RGB colors has shown relatively low compression performance and slow convergence and inference speed. Frame-wise video representation, which maps a temporal coordinate to its entire frame, has recently emerged as an alternative method to represent videos, improving compression rates and encoding speed. While promising, it has still failed to reach the performance of state-of-the-art video compression algorithms. In this work, we propose FFNeRV, a novel method for incorporating flow information into frame-wise representations to exploit the temporal redundancy across the frames in videos inspired by the standard video codecs. Furthermore, we introduce a fully convolutional architecture, enabled by one-dimensional temporal grids, improving the continuity of spatial features. Experimental results show that FFNeRV yields the best performance for video compression and frame interpolation among the methods using frame-wise representations or neural fields. To reduce the model size even further, we devise a more compact convolutional architecture using the group and pointwise convolutions. With model compression techniques, including quantization-aware training and entropy coding, FFNeRV outperforms widely-used standard video codecs (H.264 and HEVC) and performs on par with state-of-the-art video compression algorithms.
Neural radiance fields (NeRF) have demonstrated the potential of coordinate-based neural representation (neural fields or implicit neural representation) in neural rendering. However, using a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) to represent a 3D scene or object requires enormous computational resources and time. There have been recent studies on how to reduce these computational inefficiencies by using additional data structures, such as grids or trees. Despite the promising performance, the explicit data structure necessitates a substantial amount of memory. In this work, we present a method to reduce the size without compromising the advantages of having additional data structures. In detail, we propose using the wavelet transform on grid-based neural fields. Grid-based neural fields are for fast convergence, and the wavelet transform, whose efficiency has been demonstrated in high-performance standard codecs, is to improve the parameter efficiency of grids. Furthermore, in order to achieve a higher sparsity of grid coefficients while maintaining reconstruction quality, we present a novel trainable masking approach. Experimental results demonstrate that non-spatial grid coefficients, such as wavelet coefficients, are capable of attaining a higher level of sparsity than spatial grid coefficients, resulting in a more compact representation. With our proposed mask and compression pipeline, we achieved state-of-the-art performance within a memory budget of 2 MB. Our code is available at https://github.com/daniel03c1/masked_wavelet_nerf.
Neural fields have emerged as a new data representation paradigm and have shown remarkable success in various signal representations. Since they preserve signals in their network parameters, the data transfer by sending and receiving the entire model parameters prevents this emerging technology from being used in many practical scenarios. We propose streamable neural fields, a single model that consists of executable sub-networks of various widths. The proposed architectural and training techniques enable a single network to be streamable over time and reconstruct different qualities and parts of signals. For example, a smaller sub-network produces smooth and low-frequency signals, while a larger sub-network can represent fine details. Experimental results have shown the effectiveness of our method in various domains, such as 2D images, videos, and 3D signed distance functions. Finally, we demonstrate that our proposed method improves training stability, by exploiting parameter sharing.
Scene flow estimation, which extracts point-wise motion between scenes, is becoming a crucial task in many computer vision tasks. However, all of the existing estimation methods utilize only the unidirectional features, restricting the accuracy and generality. This paper presents a novel scene flow estimation architecture using bidirectional flow embedding layers. The proposed bidirectional layer learns features along both forward and backward directions, enhancing the estimation performance. In addition, hierarchical feature extraction and warping improve the performance and reduce computational overhead. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture achieved a new state-of-the-art record by outperforming other approaches with large margin in both FlyingThings3D and KITTI benchmarks. Codes are available at https://github.com/cwc1260/BiFlow.
The need for automatic design of deep neural networks has led to the emergence of neural architecture search (NAS), which has generated models outperforming manually-designed models. However, most existing NAS frameworks are designed for image processing tasks, and lack structures and operations effective for voice activity detection (VAD) tasks. To discover improved VAD models through automatic design, we present the first work that proposes a NAS framework optimized for the VAD task. The proposed NAS-VAD framework expands the existing search space with the attention mechanism while incorporating the compact macro-architecture with fewer cells. The experimental results show that the models discovered by NAS-VAD outperform the existing manually-designed VAD models in various synthetic and real-world datasets. Our code and models are available at https://github.com/daniel03c1/NAS_VAD.
Implicit neural representation (INR) has emerged as a powerful paradigm for representing signals, such as images, videos, 3D shapes, etc. Although it has shown the ability to represent fine details, its efficiency as a data representation has not been extensively studied. In INR, the data is stored in the form of parameters of a neural network and general purpose optimization algorithms do not generally exploit the spatial and temporal redundancy in signals. In this paper, we suggest a novel INR approach to representing and compressing videos by explicitly removing data redundancy. Instead of storing raw RGB colors, we propose Neural Residual Flow Fields (NRFF), using motion information across video frames and residuals that are necessary to reconstruct a video. Maintaining the motion information, which is usually smoother and less complex than the raw signals, requires far fewer parameters. Furthermore, reusing redundant pixel values further improves the network parameter efficiency. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method outperforms the baseline methods by a significant margin. The code is available in https://github.com/daniel03c1/eff_video_representation.
With their high energy efficiency, processing-in-memory (PIM) arrays are increasingly used for convolutional neural network (CNN) inference. In PIM-based CNN inference, the computational latency and energy are dependent on how the CNN weights are mapped to the PIM array. A recent study proposed shifted and duplicated kernel (SDK) mapping that reuses the input feature maps with a unit of a parallel window, which is convolved with duplicated kernels to obtain multiple output elements in parallel. However, the existing SDK-based mapping algorithm does not always result in the minimum computing cycles because it only maps a square-shaped parallel window with the entire channels. In this paper, we introduce a novel mapping algorithm called variable-window SDK (VW-SDK), which adaptively determines the shape of the parallel window that leads to the minimum computing cycles for a given convolutional layer and PIM array. By allowing rectangular-shaped windows with partial channels, VW-SDK utilizes the PIM array more efficiently, thereby further reduces the number of computing cycles. The simulation with a 512x512 PIM array and Resnet-18 shows that VW-SDK improves the inference speed by 1.69x compared to the existing SDK-based algorithm.
With increasing applications of 3D hand pose estimation in various human-computer interaction applications, convolution neural networks (CNNs) based estimation models have been actively explored. However, the existing models require complex architectures or redundant computational resources to trade with the acceptable accuracy. To tackle this limitation, this paper proposes HandFoldingNet, an accurate and efficient hand pose estimator that regresses the hand joint locations from the normalized 3D hand point cloud input. The proposed model utilizes a folding-based decoder that folds a given 2D hand skeleton into the corresponding joint coordinates. For higher estimation accuracy, folding is guided by multi-scale features, which include both global and joint-wise local features. Experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the existing methods on three hand pose benchmark datasets with the lowest model parameter requirement. Code is available at https://github.com/cwc1260/HandFold.