There have been significant advancements in anomaly detection in an unsupervised manner, where only normal images are available for training. Several recent methods aim to detect anomalies based on a memory, comparing the input and the directly stored normal features (or trained features with normal images). However, such memory-based approaches operate on a discrete feature space implemented by the nearest neighbor or attention mechanism, suffering from poor generalization or an identity shortcut issue outputting the same as input, respectively. Furthermore, the majority of existing methods are designed to detect single-class anomalies, resulting in unsatisfactory performance when presented with multiple classes of objects. To tackle all of the above challenges, we propose GRAD, a novel anomaly detection method for representing normal features within a "continuous" feature space, enabled by transforming spatial features into coordinates and mapping them to continuous grids. Furthermore, we carefully design the grids tailored for anomaly detection, representing both local and global normal features and fusing them effectively. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that GRAD successfully generalizes the normal features and mitigates the identity shortcut, furthermore, GRAD effectively handles diverse classes in a single model thanks to the high-granularity global representation. In an evaluation using the MVTec AD dataset, GRAD significantly outperforms the previous state-of-the-art method by reducing 65.0\% of the error for multi-class unified anomaly detection. The project page is available at https://tae-mo.github.io/grad/.
Neural fields, mapping low-dimensional input coordinates to corresponding signals, have shown promising results in representing various signals. Numerous methodologies have been proposed, and techniques employing MLPs and grid representations have achieved substantial success. MLPs allow compact and high expressibility, yet often suffer from spectral bias and slow convergence speed. On the other hand, methods using grids are free from spectral bias and achieve fast training speed, however, at the expense of high spatial complexity. In this work, we propose a novel way for exploiting both MLPs and grid representations in neural fields. Unlike the prevalent methods that combine them sequentially (extract features from the grids first and feed them to the MLP), we inject spectral bias-free grid representations into the intermediate features in the MLP. More specifically, we suggest a Coordinate-Aware Modulation (CAM), which modulates the intermediate features using scale and shift parameters extracted from the grid representations. This can maintain the strengths of MLPs while mitigating any remaining potential biases, facilitating the rapid learning of high-frequency components. In addition, we empirically found that the feature normalizations, which have not been successful in neural filed literature, proved to be effective when applied in conjunction with the proposed CAM. Experimental results demonstrate that CAM enhances the performance of neural representation and improves learning stability across a range of signals. Especially in the novel view synthesis task, we achieved state-of-the-art performance with the least number of parameters and fast training speed for dynamic scenes and the best performance under 1MB memory for static scenes. CAM also outperforms the best-performing video compression methods using neural fields by a large margin.
Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs) have demonstrated remarkable potential in capturing complex 3D scenes with high fidelity. However, one persistent challenge that hinders the widespread adoption of NeRFs is the computational bottleneck due to the volumetric rendering. On the other hand, 3D Gaussian splatting (3DGS) has recently emerged as an alternative representation that leverages a 3D Gaussisan-based representation and adopts the rasterization pipeline to render the images rather than volumetric rendering, achieving very fast rendering speed and promising image quality. However, a significant drawback arises as 3DGS entails a substantial number of 3D Gaussians to maintain the high fidelity of the rendered images, which requires a large amount of memory and storage. To address this critical issue, we place a specific emphasis on two key objectives: reducing the number of Gaussian points without sacrificing performance and compressing the Gaussian attributes, such as view-dependent color and covariance. To this end, we propose a learnable mask strategy that significantly reduces the number of Gaussians while preserving high performance. In addition, we propose a compact but effective representation of view-dependent color by employing a grid-based neural field rather than relying on spherical harmonics. Finally, we learn codebooks to compactly represent the geometric attributes of Gaussian by vector quantization. In our extensive experiments, we consistently show over 10$\times$ reduced storage and enhanced rendering speed, while maintaining the quality of the scene representation, compared to 3DGS. Our work provides a comprehensive framework for 3D scene representation, achieving high performance, fast training, compactness, and real-time rendering. Our project page is available at https://maincold2.github.io/c3dgs/.
Neural fields, also known as coordinate-based or implicit neural representations, have shown a remarkable capability of representing, generating, and manipulating various forms of signals. For video representations, however, mapping pixel-wise coordinates to RGB colors has shown relatively low compression performance and slow convergence and inference speed. Frame-wise video representation, which maps a temporal coordinate to its entire frame, has recently emerged as an alternative method to represent videos, improving compression rates and encoding speed. While promising, it has still failed to reach the performance of state-of-the-art video compression algorithms. In this work, we propose FFNeRV, a novel method for incorporating flow information into frame-wise representations to exploit the temporal redundancy across the frames in videos inspired by the standard video codecs. Furthermore, we introduce a fully convolutional architecture, enabled by one-dimensional temporal grids, improving the continuity of spatial features. Experimental results show that FFNeRV yields the best performance for video compression and frame interpolation among the methods using frame-wise representations or neural fields. To reduce the model size even further, we devise a more compact convolutional architecture using the group and pointwise convolutions. With model compression techniques, including quantization-aware training and entropy coding, FFNeRV outperforms widely-used standard video codecs (H.264 and HEVC) and performs on par with state-of-the-art video compression algorithms.
Neural radiance fields (NeRF) have demonstrated the potential of coordinate-based neural representation (neural fields or implicit neural representation) in neural rendering. However, using a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) to represent a 3D scene or object requires enormous computational resources and time. There have been recent studies on how to reduce these computational inefficiencies by using additional data structures, such as grids or trees. Despite the promising performance, the explicit data structure necessitates a substantial amount of memory. In this work, we present a method to reduce the size without compromising the advantages of having additional data structures. In detail, we propose using the wavelet transform on grid-based neural fields. Grid-based neural fields are for fast convergence, and the wavelet transform, whose efficiency has been demonstrated in high-performance standard codecs, is to improve the parameter efficiency of grids. Furthermore, in order to achieve a higher sparsity of grid coefficients while maintaining reconstruction quality, we present a novel trainable masking approach. Experimental results demonstrate that non-spatial grid coefficients, such as wavelet coefficients, are capable of attaining a higher level of sparsity than spatial grid coefficients, resulting in a more compact representation. With our proposed mask and compression pipeline, we achieved state-of-the-art performance within a memory budget of 2 MB. Our code is available at https://github.com/daniel03c1/masked_wavelet_nerf.