The growing size of datasets and deep learning models has made faster and memory-efficient training crucial. Reversible transformers have recently been introduced as an exciting new method for extremely memory-efficient training, but they come with an additional computation overhead of activation re-computation in the backpropagation phase. We present PaReprop, a fast Parallelized Reversible Backpropagation algorithm that parallelizes the additional activation re-computation overhead in reversible training with the gradient computation itself in backpropagation phase. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed PaReprop algorithm through extensive benchmarking across model families (ViT, MViT, Swin and RoBERTa), data modalities (Vision & NLP), model sizes (from small to giant), and training batch sizes. Our empirical results show that PaReprop achieves up to 20% higher training throughput than vanilla reversible training, largely mitigating the theoretical overhead of 25% lower throughput from activation recomputation in reversible training. Project page: https://tylerzhu.com/pareprop.
Given two images depicting a person and a garment worn by another person, our goal is to generate a visualization of how the garment might look on the input person. A key challenge is to synthesize a photorealistic detail-preserving visualization of the garment, while warping the garment to accommodate a significant body pose and shape change across the subjects. Previous methods either focus on garment detail preservation without effective pose and shape variation, or allow try-on with the desired shape and pose but lack garment details. In this paper, we propose a diffusion-based architecture that unifies two UNets (referred to as Parallel-UNet), which allows us to preserve garment details and warp the garment for significant pose and body change in a single network. The key ideas behind Parallel-UNet include: 1) garment is warped implicitly via a cross attention mechanism, 2) garment warp and person blend happen as part of a unified process as opposed to a sequence of two separate tasks. Experimental results indicate that TryOnDiffusion achieves state-of-the-art performance both qualitatively and quantitatively.
With a proliferation of generic domain-adaptation approaches, we report a simple yet effective technique for learning difficult per-pixel 2.5D and 3D regression representations of articulated people. We obtained strong sim-to-real domain generalization for the 2.5D DensePose estimation task and the 3D human surface normal estimation task. On the multi-person DensePose MSCOCO benchmark, our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods which are trained on real images that are densely labelled. This is an important result since obtaining human manifold's intrinsic uv coordinates on real images is time consuming and prone to labeling noise. Additionally, we present our model's 3D surface normal predictions on the MSCOCO dataset that lacks any real 3D surface normal labels. The key to our approach is to mitigate the "Inter-domain Covariate Shift" with a carefully selected training batch from a mixture of domain samples, a deep batch-normalized residual network, and a modified multi-task learning objective. Our approach is complementary to existing domain-adaptation techniques and can be applied to other dense per-pixel pose estimation problems.
We introduce three new robustness benchmarks consisting of naturally occurring distribution changes in image style, geographic location, camera operation, and more. Using our benchmarks, we take stock of previously proposed hypotheses for out-of-distribution robustness and put them to the test. We find that using larger models and synthetic data augmentation can improve robustness on real-world distribution shifts, contrary to claims in prior work. Motivated by this, we introduce a new data augmentation method which advances the state-of-the-art and outperforms models pretrained with 1000x more labeled data. We find that some methods consistently help with distribution shifts in texture and local image statistics, but these methods do not help with some other distribution shifts like geographic changes. We conclude that future research must study multiple distribution shifts simultaneously.
We present BlazePose, a lightweight convolutional neural network architecture for human pose estimation that is tailored for real-time inference on mobile devices. During inference, the network produces 33 body keypoints for a single person and runs at over 30 frames per second on a Pixel 2 phone. This makes it particularly suited to real-time use cases like fitness tracking and sign language recognition. Our main contributions include a novel body pose tracking solution and a lightweight body pose estimation neural network that uses both heatmaps and regression to keypoint coordinates.
Few-shot classification refers to learning a classifier for new classes given only a few examples. While a plethora of models have emerged to tackle this recently, we find the current procedure and datasets that are used to systematically assess progress in this setting lacking. To address this, we propose Meta-Dataset: a new benchmark for training and evaluating few-shot classifiers that is large-scale, consists of multiple datasets, and presents more natural and realistic tasks. The aim is to measure the ability of state-of-the-art models to leverage diverse sources of data to achieve higher generalization, and to evaluate that generalization ability in a more challenging setting. We additionally measure robustness of current methods to variations in the number of available examples and the number of classes. Finally our extensive empirical evaluation leads us to identify weaknesses in Prototypical Networks and MAML, two popular few-shot classification methods, and to propose a new method, Proto-MAML, which achieves improved performance on our benchmark.
We present a box-free bottom-up approach for the tasks of pose estimation and instance segmentation of people in multi-person images using an efficient single-shot model. The proposed PersonLab model tackles both semantic-level reasoning and object-part associations using part-based modeling. Our model employs a convolutional network which learns to detect individual keypoints and predict their relative displacements, allowing us to group keypoints into person pose instances. Further, we propose a part-induced geometric embedding descriptor which allows us to associate semantic person pixels with their corresponding person instance, delivering instance-level person segmentations. Our system is based on a fully-convolutional architecture and allows for efficient inference, with runtime essentially independent of the number of people present in the scene. Trained on COCO data alone, our system achieves COCO test-dev keypoint average precision of 0.665 using single-scale inference and 0.687 using multi-scale inference, significantly outperforming all previous bottom-up pose estimation systems. We are also the first bottom-up method to report competitive results for the person class in the COCO instance segmentation task, achieving a person category average precision of 0.417.
We propose a method for multi-person detection and 2-D pose estimation that achieves state-of-art results on the challenging COCO keypoints task. It is a simple, yet powerful, top-down approach consisting of two stages. In the first stage, we predict the location and scale of boxes which are likely to contain people; for this we use the Faster RCNN detector. In the second stage, we estimate the keypoints of the person potentially contained in each proposed bounding box. For each keypoint type we predict dense heatmaps and offsets using a fully convolutional ResNet. To combine these outputs we introduce a novel aggregation procedure to obtain highly localized keypoint predictions. We also use a novel form of keypoint-based Non-Maximum-Suppression (NMS), instead of the cruder box-level NMS, and a novel form of keypoint-based confidence score estimation, instead of box-level scoring. Trained on COCO data alone, our final system achieves average precision of 0.649 on the COCO test-dev set and the 0.643 test-standard sets, outperforming the winner of the 2016 COCO keypoints challenge and other recent state-of-art. Further, by using additional in-house labeled data we obtain an even higher average precision of 0.685 on the test-dev set and 0.673 on the test-standard set, more than 5% absolute improvement compared to the previous best performing method on the same dataset.