Multi-turn dialogues are characterized by their extended length and the presence of turn-taking conversations. Traditional language models often overlook the distinct features of these dialogues by treating them as regular text. In this paper, we propose a speaker-enhanced pre-training method for long dialogue summarization, which leverages the inherent structure of multiple-turn dialogues. To support our study, we curate a diverse dataset that includes transcripts from real-world scenarios, movie or TV show transcripts, and dialogues generated by a Large Language Model. We then perform a pre-training, which encompasses the detection of speaker changes, and masked utterance generation. Experimental results of fine-tuned models demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on downstream benchmarks with long context, surpassing baseline models and highlighting the effectiveness of our approach. Our findings highlight the importance of curating pre-training datasets that exhibit diversity and variations in length distribution to ensure effective alignment with downstream datasets.
This paper introduces the Decomposed Requirements Following Ratio (DRFR), a new metric for evaluating Large Language Models' (LLMs) ability to follow instructions. Addressing a gap in current methodologies, DRFR breaks down complex instructions into simpler criteria, facilitating a detailed analysis of LLMs' compliance with various aspects of tasks. Alongside this metric, we present InFoBench, a benchmark comprising 500 diverse instructions and 2,250 decomposed questions across multiple constraint categories. Our experiments compare DRFR with traditional scoring methods and explore annotation sources, including human experts, crowd-sourced workers, and GPT-4. The findings demonstrate DRFR's higher reliability and the effectiveness of using GPT-4 as a cost-efficient annotator. The evaluation of several advanced LLMs using this framework reveals their strengths and areas needing improvement, particularly in complex instruction-following. This study contributes a novel metric and benchmark, offering insights for future LLM development and evaluation.
This paper introduces a novel approach to enhance the capabilities of Large Language Models (LLMs) in processing and understanding extensive text sequences, a critical aspect in applications requiring deep comprehension and synthesis of large volumes of information. Recognizing the inherent challenges in extending the context window for LLMs, primarily built on Transformer architecture, we propose a new model architecture, referred to as Zebra. This architecture efficiently manages the quadratic time and memory complexity issues associated with full attention in the Transformer by employing grouped local-global attention layers. Our model, akin to a zebra's alternating stripes, balances local and global attention layers, significantly reducing computational requirements and memory consumption. Comprehensive experiments, including pretraining from scratch, continuation of long context adaptation training, and long instruction tuning, are conducted to evaluate the Zebra's performance. The results show that Zebra achieves comparable or superior performance on both short and long sequence benchmarks, while also enhancing training and inference efficiency.
With the rapid development of large language models (LLMs) and their integration into large multimodal models (LMMs), there has been impressive progress in zero-shot completion of user-oriented vision-language tasks. However, a gap remains in the domain of chart image understanding due to the distinct abstract components in charts. To address this, we introduce a large-scale MultiModal Chart Instruction (MMC-Instruction) dataset comprising 600k instances supporting diverse tasks and chart types. Leveraging this data, we develop MultiModal Chart Assistant (MMCA), an LMM that achieves state-of-the-art performance on existing chart QA benchmarks. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive evaluation of LMM chart understanding, we also propose a MultiModal Chart Benchmark (MMC-Benchmark), a comprehensive human-annotated benchmark with 9 distinct tasks evaluating reasoning capabilities over charts. Extensive experiments on MMC-Benchmark reveal the limitations of existing LMMs on correctly interpreting charts, even for the most recent GPT-4V model. Our work provides an instruction-tuning methodology and benchmark to advance multimodal understanding of charts.
Multi-document summarization aims to obtain core information from a collection of documents written on the same topic. This paper proposes a new holistic framework for unsupervised multi-document extractive summarization. Our method incorporates the holistic beam search inference method associated with the holistic measurements, named Subset Representative Index (SRI). SRI balances the importance and diversity of a subset of sentences from the source documents and can be calculated in unsupervised and adaptive manners. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, we conduct extensive experiments on both small and large-scale multi-document summarization datasets under both unsupervised and adaptive settings. The proposed method outperforms strong baselines by a significant margin, as indicated by the resulting ROUGE scores and diversity measures. Our findings also suggest that diversity is essential for improving multi-document summary performance.
Pairwise human judgments are pivotal in guiding large language models (LLMs) to generate outputs that align with human preferences. They are also often used in summarization evaluation, complementing existing automatic metrics. Despite their significance, however, there has been limited research probing these pairwise human judgments. The collective impact and respective weights of factors such as informativeness, coherence, fluency, and factual consistency remain elusive. The impact of hidden factors on the final judgment is also unclear. In this paper, we conduct an in-depth examination of a dataset of pairwise human judgments released by OpenAI. Utilizing the Bradley-Terry-Luce model, we identify key factors that could potentially influence human judgments. Our research uncovers the inherent preferences embedded in human judgments and suggests strategies to boost sample efficiency. Finally, we provide insights on the construction of balanced datasets for human judgment evaluations, a crucial step in shaping the behaviors of future LLMs.
Aspect or query-based summarization has recently caught more attention, as it can generate differentiated summaries based on users' interests. However, the current dataset for aspect or query-based summarization either focuses on specific domains, contains relatively small-scale instances, or includes only a few aspect types. Such limitations hinder further explorations in this direction. In this work, we take advantage of crowd-sourcing knowledge on Wikipedia.org and automatically create a high-quality, large-scale open-domain aspect-based summarization dataset named OASum, which contains more than 3.7 million instances with around 1 million different aspects on 2 million Wikipedia pages. We provide benchmark results on OAsum and demonstrate its ability for diverse aspect-based summarization generation. To overcome the data scarcity problem on specific domains, we also perform zero-shot, few-shot, and fine-tuning on seven downstream datasets. Specifically, zero/few-shot and fine-tuning results show that the model pre-trained on our corpus demonstrates a strong aspect or query-focused generation ability compared with the backbone model. Our dataset and pre-trained checkpoints are publicly available.
Text segmentation is important for signaling a document's structure. Without segmenting a long document into topically coherent sections, it is difficult for readers to comprehend the text, let alone find important information. The problem is only exacerbated by a lack of segmentation in transcripts of audio/video recordings. In this paper, we explore the role that section segmentation plays in extractive summarization of written and spoken documents. Our approach learns robust sentence representations by performing summarization and segmentation simultaneously, which is further enhanced by an optimization-based regularizer to promote selection of diverse summary sentences. We conduct experiments on multiple datasets ranging from scientific articles to spoken transcripts to evaluate the model's performance. Our findings suggest that the model can not only achieve state-of-the-art performance on publicly available benchmarks, but demonstrate better cross-genre transferability when equipped with text segmentation. We perform a series of analyses to quantify the impact of section segmentation on summarizing written and spoken documents of substantial length and complexity.
Recently, deep reinforcement learning (RL) has proven its feasibility in solving combinatorial optimization problems (COPs). The learning-to-rank techniques have been studied in the field of information retrieval. While several COPs can be formulated as the prioritization of input items, as is common in the information retrieval, it has not been fully explored how the learning-to-rank techniques can be incorporated into deep RL for COPs. In this paper, we present the learning-to-rank distillation-based COP framework, where a high-performance ranking policy obtained by RL for a COP can be distilled into a non-iterative, simple model, thereby achieving a low-latency COP solver. Specifically, we employ the approximated ranking distillation to render a score-based ranking model learnable via gradient descent. Furthermore, we use the efficient sequence sampling to improve the inference performance with a limited delay. With the framework, we demonstrate that a distilled model not only achieves comparable performance to its respective, high-performance RL, but also provides several times faster inferences. We evaluate the framework with several COPs such as priority-based task scheduling and multidimensional knapsack, demonstrating the benefits of the framework in terms of inference latency and performance.
With the explosive growth of livestream broadcasting, there is an urgent need for new summarization technology that enables us to create a preview of streamed content and tap into this wealth of knowledge. However, the problem is nontrivial due to the informal nature of spoken language. Further, there has been a shortage of annotated datasets that are necessary for transcript summarization. In this paper, we present StreamHover, a framework for annotating and summarizing livestream transcripts. With a total of over 500 hours of videos annotated with both extractive and abstractive summaries, our benchmark dataset is significantly larger than currently existing annotated corpora. We explore a neural extractive summarization model that leverages vector-quantized variational autoencoder to learn latent vector representations of spoken utterances and identify salient utterances from the transcripts to form summaries. We show that our model generalizes better and improves performance over strong baselines. The results of this study provide an avenue for future research to improve summarization solutions for efficient browsing of livestreams.