Video super-resolution (VSR) techniques, especially deep-learning-based algorithms, have drastically improved over the last few years and shown impressive performance on synthetic data. However, their performance on real-world video data suffers because of the complexity of real-world degradations and misaligned video frames. Since obtaining a synthetic dataset consisting of low-resolution (LR) and high-resolution (HR) frames are easier than obtaining real-world LR and HR images, in this paper, we propose synthesizing real-world degradations on synthetic training datasets. The proposed synthetic real-world degradations (SRWD) include a combination of the blur, noise, downsampling, pixel binning, and image and video compression artifacts. We then propose using a random shuffling-based strategy to simulate these degradations on the training datasets and train a single end-to-end deep neural network (DNN) on the proposed larger variation of realistic synthesized training data. Our quantitative and qualitative comparative analysis shows that the proposed training strategy using diverse realistic degradations improves the performance by 7.1 % in terms of NRQM compared to RealBasicVSR and by 3.34 % compared to BSRGAN on the VideoLQ dataset. We also introduce a new dataset that contains high-resolution real-world videos that can serve as a common ground for bench-marking.
Video depth estimation is crucial in various applications, such as scene reconstruction and augmented reality. In contrast to the naive method of estimating depths from images, a more sophisticated approach uses temporal information, thereby eliminating flickering and geometrical inconsistencies. We propose a consistent method for dense video depth estimation; however, unlike the existing monocular methods, ours relates to stereo videos. This technique overcomes the limitations arising from the monocular input. As a benefit of using stereo inputs, a left-right consistency loss is introduced to improve the performance. Besides, we use SLAM-based camera pose estimation in the process. To address the problem of depth blurriness during test-time training (TTT), we present an edge-preserving loss function that improves the visibility of fine details while preserving geometrical consistency. We show that our edge-aware stereo video model can accurately estimate the dense depth maps.
Accurate depth maps are essential in various applications, such as autonomous driving, scene reconstruction, point-cloud creation, etc. However, monocular-depth estimation (MDE) algorithms often fail to provide enough texture & sharpness, and also are inconsistent for homogeneous scenes. These algorithms mostly use CNN or vision transformer-based architectures requiring large datasets for supervised training. But, MDE algorithms trained on available depth datasets do not generalize well and hence fail to perform accurately in diverse real-world scenes. Moreover, the ground-truth depth maps are either lower resolution or sparse leading to relatively inconsistent depth maps. In general, acquiring a high-resolution ground truth dataset with pixel-level precision for accurate depth prediction is an expensive, and time-consuming challenge. In this paper, we generate a high-resolution synthetic depth dataset (HRSD) of dimension 1920 X 1080 from Grand Theft Auto (GTA-V), which contains 100,000 color images and corresponding dense ground truth depth maps. The generated datasets are diverse and have scenes from indoors to outdoors, from homogeneous surfaces to textures. For experiments and analysis, we train the DPT algorithm, a state-of-the-art transformer-based MDE algorithm on the proposed synthetic dataset, which significantly increases the accuracy of depth maps on different scenes by 9 %. Since the synthetic datasets are of higher resolution, we propose adding a feature extraction module in the transformer encoder and incorporating an attention-based loss, further improving the accuracy by 15 %.
Memory efficiency is crucial in training deep learning networks on resource-restricted devices. During backpropagation, forward tensors are used to calculate gradients. Despite the option of keeping those dependencies in memory until they are reused in backpropagation, some forward tensors can be discarded and recomputed later from saved tensors, so-called checkpoints. This allows, in particular, for resource-constrained heterogeneous environments to make use of all available compute devices. Unfortunately, the definition of these checkpoints is a non-trivial problem and poses a challenge to the programmer - improper or excessive recomputations negate the benefit of checkpointing. In this article, we present XEngine, an approach that schedules network operators to heterogeneous devices in low memory environments by determining checkpoints and recomputations of tensors. Our approach selects suitable resources per timestep and operator and optimizes the end-to-end time for neural networks taking the memory limitation of each device into account. For this, we formulate a mixed-integer quadratic program (MIQP) to schedule operators of deep learning networks on heterogeneous systems. We compare our MIQP solver XEngine against Checkmate, a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) approach that solves recomputation on a single device. Our solver finds solutions that are up to 22.5 % faster than the fastest Checkmate schedule in which the network is computed exclusively on a single device. We also find valid schedules for networks making use of both central processing units and graphics processing units if memory limitations do not allow scheduling exclusively to the graphics processing unit.
Can we make virtual characters in a scene interact with their surrounding objects through simple instructions? Is it possible to synthesize such motion plausibly with a diverse set of objects and instructions? Inspired by these questions, we present the first framework to synthesize the full-body motion of virtual human characters performing specified actions with 3D objects placed within their reach. Our system takes as input textual instructions specifying the objects and the associated intentions of the virtual characters and outputs diverse sequences of full-body motions. This is in contrast to existing work, where full-body action synthesis methods generally do not consider object interactions, and human-object interaction methods focus mainly on synthesizing hand or finger movements for grasping objects. We accomplish our objective by designing an intent-driven full-body motion generator, which uses a pair of decoupled conditional variational autoencoders (CVAE) to learn the motion of the body parts in an autoregressive manner. We also optimize for the positions of the objects with six degrees of freedom (6DoF) such that they plausibly fit within the hands of the synthesized characters. We compare our proposed method with the existing methods of motion synthesis and establish a new and stronger state-of-the-art for the task of intent-driven motion synthesis. Through a user study, we further show that our synthesized full-body motions appear more realistic to the participants in more than 80% of scenarios compared to the current state-of-the-art methods, and are perceived to be as good as the ground truth on several occasions.
FPGAs have found their way into data centers as accelerator cards, making reconfigurable computing more accessible for high-performance applications. At the same time, new high-level synthesis compilers like Xilinx Vitis and runtime libraries such as XRT attract software programmers into the reconfigurable domain. While software programmers are familiar with task-level and data-parallel programming, FPGAs often require different types of parallelism. For example, data-driven parallelism is mandatory to obtain satisfactory hardware designs for pipelined dataflow architectures. However, software programmers are often not acquainted with dataflow architectures - resulting in poor hardware designs. In this work we present FLOWER, a comprehensive compiler infrastructure that provides automatic canonical transformations for high-level synthesis from a domain-specific library. This allows programmers to focus on algorithm implementations rather than low-level optimizations for dataflow architectures. We show that FLOWER allows to synthesize efficient implementations for high-performance streaming applications targeting System-on-Chip and FPGA accelerator cards, in the context of image processing and computer vision.
"How can we animate 3D-characters from a movie script or move robots by simply telling them what we would like them to do?" "How unstructured and complex can we make a sentence and still generate plausible movements from it?" These are questions that need to be answered in the long-run, as the field is still in its infancy. Inspired by these problems, we present a new technique for generating compositional actions, which handles complex input sentences. Our output is a 3D pose sequence depicting the actions in the input sentence. We propose a hierarchical two-stream sequential model to explore a finer joint-level mapping between natural language sentences and 3D pose sequences corresponding to the given motion. We learn two manifold representations of the motion -- one each for the upper body and the lower body movements. Our model can generate plausible pose sequences for short sentences describing single actions as well as long compositional sentences describing multiple sequential and superimposed actions. We evaluate our proposed model on the publicly available KIT Motion-Language Dataset containing 3D pose data with human-annotated sentences. Experimental results show that our model advances the state-of-the-art on text-based motion synthesis in objective evaluations by a margin of 50%. Qualitative evaluations based on a user study indicate that our synthesized motions are perceived to be the closest to the ground-truth motion captures for both short and compositional sentences.
Due to the current developments towards autonomous driving and vehicle active safety, there is an increasing necessity for algorithms that are able to perform complex criticality predictions in real-time. Being able to process multi-object traffic scenarios aids the implementation of a variety of automotive applications such as driver assistance systems for collision prevention and mitigation as well as fall-back systems for autonomous vehicles. We present a fully model-based algorithm with a parallelizable architecture. The proposed algorithm can evaluate the criticality of complex, multi-modal (vehicles and pedestrians) traffic scenarios by simulating millions of trajectory combinations and detecting collisions between objects. The algorithm is able to estimate upcoming criticality at very early stages, demonstrating its potential for vehicle safety-systems and autonomous driving applications. An implementation on an embedded system in a test vehicle proves in a prototypical manner the compatibility of the algorithm with the hardware possibilities of modern cars. For a complex traffic scenario with 11 dynamic objects, more than 86 million pose combinations are evaluated in 21 ms on the GPU of a Drive PX~2.
Multilingualism is a cultural cornerstone of Europe and firmly anchored in the European treaties including full language equality. However, language barriers impacting business, cross-lingual and cross-cultural communication are still omnipresent. Language Technologies (LTs) are a powerful means to break down these barriers. While the last decade has seen various initiatives that created a multitude of approaches and technologies tailored to Europe's specific needs, there is still an immense level of fragmentation. At the same time, AI has become an increasingly important concept in the European Information and Communication Technology area. For a few years now, AI, including many opportunities, synergies but also misconceptions, has been overshadowing every other topic. We present an overview of the European LT landscape, describing funding programmes, activities, actions and challenges in the different countries with regard to LT, including the current state of play in industry and the LT market. We present a brief overview of the main LT-related activities on the EU level in the last ten years and develop strategic guidance with regard to four key dimensions.