Hate speech detection is a challenging natural language processing task that requires capturing linguistic and contextual nuances. Pre-trained language models (PLMs) offer rich semantic representations of text that can improve this task. However there is still limited knowledge about ways to effectively combine representations across PLMs and leverage their complementary strengths. In this work, we shed light on various combination techniques for several PLMs and comprehensively analyze their effectiveness. Our findings show that combining embeddings leads to slight improvements but at a high computational cost and the choice of combination has marginal effect on the final outcome. We also make our codebase public at https://github.com/aflah02/The-Art-of-Embedding-Fusion-Optimizing-Hate-Speech-Detection .
The use of observed wearable sensor data (e.g., photoplethysmograms [PPG]) to infer health measures (e.g., glucose level or blood pressure) is a very active area of research. Such technology can have a significant impact on health screening, chronic disease management and remote monitoring. A common approach is to collect sensor data and corresponding labels from a clinical grade device (e.g., blood pressure cuff), and train deep learning models to map one to the other. Although well intentioned, this approach often ignores a principled analysis of whether the input sensor data has enough information to predict the desired metric. We analyze the task of predicting blood pressure from PPG pulse wave analysis. Our review of the prior work reveals that many papers fall prey data leakage, and unrealistic constraints on the task and the preprocessing steps. We propose a set of tools to help determine if the input signal in question (e.g., PPG) is indeed a good predictor of the desired label (e.g., blood pressure). Using our proposed tools, we have found that blood pressure prediction using PPG has a high multi-valued mapping factor of 33.2% and low mutual information of 9.8%. In comparison, heart rate prediction using PPG, a well-established task, has a very low multi-valued mapping factor of 0.75% and high mutual information of 87.7%. We argue that these results provide a more realistic representation of the current progress towards to goal of wearable blood pressure measurement via PPG pulse wave analysis.
A prominent approach to visual Reinforcement Learning (RL) is to learn an internal state representation using self-supervised methods, which has the potential benefit of improved sample-efficiency and generalization through additional learning signal and inductive biases. However, while the real world is inherently 3D, prior efforts have largely been focused on leveraging 2D computer vision techniques as auxiliary self-supervision. In this work, we present a unified framework for self-supervised learning of 3D representations for motor control. Our proposed framework consists of two phases: a pretraining phase where a deep voxel-based 3D autoencoder is pretrained on a large object-centric dataset, and a finetuning phase where the representation is jointly finetuned together with RL on in-domain data. We empirically show that our method enjoys improved sample efficiency in simulated manipulation tasks compared to 2D representation learning methods. Additionally, our learned policies transfer zero-shot to a real robot setup with only approximate geometric correspondence, and successfully solve motor control tasks that involve grasping and lifting from a single, uncalibrated RGB camera. Code and videos are available at https://yanjieze.com/3d4rl/ .
Refractive error is the most common eye disorder and is the key cause behind correctable visual impairment, responsible for nearly 80% of the visual impairment in the US. Refractive error can be diagnosed using multiple methods, including subjective refraction, retinoscopy, and autorefractors. Although subjective refraction is the gold standard, it requires cooperation from the patient and hence is not suitable for infants, young children, and developmentally delayed adults. Retinoscopy is an objective refraction method that does not require any input from the patient. However, retinoscopy requires a lens kit and a trained examiner, which limits its use for mass screening. In this work, we automate retinoscopy by attaching a smartphone to a retinoscope and recording retinoscopic videos with the patient wearing a custom pair of paper frames. We develop a video processing pipeline that takes retinoscopic videos as input and estimates the net refractive error based on our proposed extension of the retinoscopy mathematical model. Our system alleviates the need for a lens kit and can be performed by an untrained examiner. In a clinical trial with 185 eyes, we achieved a sensitivity of 91.0% and specificity of 74.0% on refractive error diagnosis. Moreover, the mean absolute error of our approach was 0.75$\pm$0.67D on net refractive error estimation compared to subjective refraction measurements. Our results indicate that our approach has the potential to be used as a retinoscopy-based refractive error screening tool in real-world medical settings.
Keratoconus is a severe eye disease that leads to deformation of the cornea. It impacts people aged 10-25 years and is the leading cause of blindness in that demography. Corneal topography is the gold standard for keratoconus diagnosis. It is a non-invasive process performed using expensive and bulky medical devices called corneal topographers. This makes it inaccessible to large populations, especially in the Global South. Low-cost smartphone-based corneal topographers, such as SmartKC, have been proposed to make keratoconus diagnosis accessible. Similar to medical-grade topographers, SmartKC outputs curvature heatmaps and quantitative metrics that need to be evaluated by doctors for keratoconus diagnosis. An automatic scheme for evaluation of these heatmaps and quantitative values can play a crucial role in screening keratoconus in areas where doctors are not available. In this work, we propose a dual-head convolutional neural network (CNN) for classifying keratoconus on the heatmaps generated by SmartKC. Since SmartKC is a new device and only had a small dataset (114 samples), we developed a 2-stage transfer learning strategy -- using historical data collected from a medical-grade topographer and a subset of SmartKC data -- to satisfactorily train our network. This, combined with our domain-specific data augmentations, achieved a sensitivity of 91.3% and a specificity of 94.2%.
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought out both the best and worst of language technology (LT). On one hand, conversational agents for information dissemination and basic diagnosis have seen widespread use, and arguably, had an important role in combating the pandemic. On the other hand, it has also become clear that such technologies are readily available for a handful of languages, and the vast majority of the global south is completely bereft of these benefits. What is the state of LT, especially conversational agents, for healthcare across the world's languages? And, what would it take to ensure global readiness of LT before the next pandemic? In this paper, we try to answer these questions through survey of existing literature and resources, as well as through a rapid chatbot building exercise for 15 Asian and African languages with varying amount of resource-availability. The study confirms the pitiful state of LT even for languages with large speaker bases, such as Sinhala and Hausa, and identifies the gaps that could help us prioritize research and investment strategies in LT for healthcare.
Learning to solve precision-based manipulation tasks from visual feedback using Reinforcement Learning (RL) could drastically reduce the engineering efforts required by traditional robot systems. However, performing fine-grained motor control from visual inputs alone is challenging, especially with a static third-person camera as often used in previous work. We propose a setting for robotic manipulation in which the agent receives visual feedback from both a third-person camera and an egocentric camera mounted on the robot's wrist. While the third-person camera is static, the egocentric camera enables the robot to actively control its vision to aid in precise manipulation. To fuse visual information from both cameras effectively, we additionally propose to use Transformers with a cross-view attention mechanism that models spatial attention from one view to another (and vice-versa), and use the learned features as input to an RL policy. Our method improves learning over strong single-view and multi-view baselines, and successfully transfers to a set of challenging manipulation tasks on a real robot with uncalibrated cameras, no access to state information, and a high degree of task variability. In a hammer manipulation task, our method succeeds in 75% of trials versus 38% and 13% for multi-view and single-view baselines, respectively.
Malnutrition is a global health crisis and is the leading cause of death among children under five. Detecting malnutrition requires anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and middle-upper arm circumference. However, measuring them accurately is a challenge, especially in the global south, due to limited resources. In this work, we propose a CNN-based approach to estimate the height of standing children under five years from depth images collected using a smart-phone. According to the SMART Methodology Manual , the acceptable accuracy for height is less than 1.4 cm. On training our deep learning model on 87131 depth images, our model achieved an average mean absolute error of 1.64% on 57064 test images. For 70.3% test images, we estimated height accurately within the acceptable 1.4 cm range. Thus, our proposed solution can accurately detect stunting (low height-for-age) in standing children below five years of age.
Inspired by the success of Deep Learning based approaches to English scene text recognition, we pose and benchmark scene text recognition for three Indic scripts - Devanagari, Telugu and Malayalam. Synthetic word images rendered from Unicode fonts are used for training the recognition system. And the performance is bench-marked on a new IIIT-ILST dataset comprising of hundreds of real scene images containing text in the above mentioned scripts. We use a segmentation free, hybrid but end-to-end trainable CNN-RNN deep neural network for transcribing the word images to the corresponding texts. The cropped word images need not be segmented into the sub-word units and the error is calculated and backpropagated for the the given word image at once. The network is trained using CTC loss, which is proven quite effective for sequence-to-sequence transcription tasks. The CNN layers in the network learn to extract robust feature representations from word images. The sequence of features learnt by the convolutional block is transcribed to a sequence of labels by the RNN+CTC block. The transcription is not bound by word length or a lexicon and is ideal for Indian languages which are highly inflectional. IIIT-ILST dataset, synthetic word images dataset and the script used to render synthetic images are available at http://cvit.iiit.ac.in/research/projects/cvit-projects/iiit-ilst