Passively collected behavioral health data from ubiquitous sensors holds significant promise to provide mental health professionals insights from patient's daily lives; however, developing analysis tools to use this data in clinical practice requires addressing challenges of generalization across devices and weak or ambiguous correlations between the measured signals and an individual's mental health. To address these challenges, we take a novel approach that leverages large language models (LLMs) to synthesize clinically useful insights from multi-sensor data. We develop chain of thought prompting methods that use LLMs to generate reasoning about how trends in data such as step count and sleep relate to conditions like depression and anxiety. We first demonstrate binary depression classification with LLMs achieving accuracies of 61.1% which exceed the state of the art. While it is not robust for clinical use, this leads us to our key finding: even more impactful and valued than classification is a new human-AI collaboration approach in which clinician experts interactively query these tools and combine their domain expertise and context about the patient with AI generated reasoning to support clinical decision-making. We find models like GPT-4 correctly reference numerical data 75% of the time, and clinician participants express strong interest in using this approach to interpret self-tracking data.
Electrodermal activity (EDA) is considered a standard marker of sympathetic activity. However, traditional EDA measurement requires electrodes in steady contact with the skin. Can sympathetic arousal be measured using only an optical sensor, such as an RGB camera? This paper presents a novel approach to infer sympathetic arousal by measuring the peripheral blood flow on the face or hand optically. We contribute a self-recorded dataset of 21 participants, comprising synchronized videos of participants' faces and palms and gold-standard EDA and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. Our results show that we can measure peripheral sympathetic responses that closely correlate with the ground truth EDA. We obtain median correlations of 0.57 to 0.63 between our inferred signals and the ground truth EDA using only videos of the participants' palms or foreheads or PPG signals from the foreheads or fingers. We also show that sympathetic arousal is best inferred from the forehead, finger, or palm.
The current work investigates the capability of Large language models (LLMs) that are explicitly trained on large corpuses of medical knowledge (Med-PaLM 2) to predict psychiatric functioning from patient interviews and clinical descriptions without being trained to do so. To assess this, n = 145 depression and n =115 PTSD assessments and n = 46 clinical case studies across high prevalence/high comorbidity disorders (Depressive, Anxiety, Psychotic, trauma and stress, Addictive disorders) were analyzed using prompts to extract estimated clinical scores and diagnoses. Results demonstrate that Med-PaLM 2 is capable of assessing psychiatric functioning across a range of psychiatric conditions with the strongest performance being the prediction of depression scores based on standardized assessments (Accuracy range= 0.80 - 0.84) which were statistically indistinguishable from human clinical raters t(1,144) = 1.20; p = 0.23. Results show the potential for general clinical language models to flexibly predict psychiatric risk based on free descriptions of functioning from both patients and clinicians.
Large language models (LLMs) can capture rich representations of concepts that are useful for real-world tasks. However, language alone is limited. While existing LLMs excel at text-based inferences, health applications require that models be grounded in numerical data (e.g., vital signs, laboratory values in clinical domains; steps, movement in the wellness domain) that is not easily or readily expressed as text in existing training corpus. We demonstrate that with only few-shot tuning, a large language model is capable of grounding various physiological and behavioral time-series data and making meaningful inferences on numerous health tasks for both clinical and wellness contexts. Using data from wearable and medical sensor recordings, we evaluate these capabilities on the tasks of cardiac signal analysis, physical activity recognition, metabolic calculation (e.g., calories burned), and estimation of stress reports and mental health screeners.
The use of observed wearable sensor data (e.g., photoplethysmograms [PPG]) to infer health measures (e.g., glucose level or blood pressure) is a very active area of research. Such technology can have a significant impact on health screening, chronic disease management and remote monitoring. A common approach is to collect sensor data and corresponding labels from a clinical grade device (e.g., blood pressure cuff), and train deep learning models to map one to the other. Although well intentioned, this approach often ignores a principled analysis of whether the input sensor data has enough information to predict the desired metric. We analyze the task of predicting blood pressure from PPG pulse wave analysis. Our review of the prior work reveals that many papers fall prey data leakage, and unrealistic constraints on the task and the preprocessing steps. We propose a set of tools to help determine if the input signal in question (e.g., PPG) is indeed a good predictor of the desired label (e.g., blood pressure). Using our proposed tools, we have found that blood pressure prediction using PPG has a high multi-valued mapping factor of 33.2% and low mutual information of 9.8%. In comparison, heart rate prediction using PPG, a well-established task, has a very low multi-valued mapping factor of 0.75% and high mutual information of 87.7%. We argue that these results provide a more realistic representation of the current progress towards to goal of wearable blood pressure measurement via PPG pulse wave analysis.
Video captioning (VC) is a fast-moving, cross-disciplinary area of research that bridges work in the fields of computer vision, natural language processing (NLP), linguistics, and human-computer interaction. In essence, VC involves understanding a video and describing it with language. Captioning is used in a host of applications from creating more accessible interfaces (e.g., low-vision navigation) to video question answering (V-QA), video retrieval and content generation. This survey covers deep learning-based VC, including but, not limited to, attention-based architectures, graph networks, reinforcement learning, adversarial networks, dense video captioning (DVC), and more. We discuss the datasets and evaluation metrics used in the field, and limitations, applications, challenges, and future directions for VC.
Synthetic data are becoming a critical tool for building artificially intelligent systems. Simulators provide a way of generating data systematically and at scale. These data can then be used either exclusively, or in conjunction with real data, for training and testing systems. Synthetic data are particularly attractive in cases where the availability of ``real'' training examples might be a bottleneck. While the volume of data in healthcare is growing exponentially, creating datasets for novel tasks and/or that reflect a diverse set of conditions and causal relationships is not trivial. Furthermore, these data are highly sensitive and often patient specific. Recent research has begun to illustrate the potential for synthetic data in many areas of medicine, but no systematic review of the literature exists. In this paper, we present the cases for physical and statistical simulations for creating data and the proposed applications in healthcare and medicine. We discuss that while synthetics can promote privacy, equity, safety and continual and causal learning, they also run the risk of introducing flaws, blind spots and propagating or exaggerating biases.
Machine learning models for camera-based physiological measurement can have weak generalization due to a lack of representative training data. Body motion is one of the most significant sources of noise when attempting to recover the subtle cardiac pulse from a video. We explore motion transfer as a form of data augmentation to introduce motion variation while preserving physiological changes. We adapt a neural video synthesis approach to augment videos for the task of remote photoplethysmography (PPG) and study the effects of motion augmentation with respect to 1) the magnitude and 2) the type of motion. After training on motion-augmented versions of publicly available datasets, the presented inter-dataset results on five benchmark datasets show improvements of up to 75% over existing state-of-the-art results. Our findings illustrate the utility of motion transfer as a data augmentation technique for improving the generalization of models for camera-based physiological sensing. We release our code and pre-trained models for using motion transfer as a data augmentation technique on our project page: https://motion-matters.github.io/
Understanding of human visual perception has historically inspired the design of computer vision architectures. As an example, perception occurs at different scales both spatially and temporally, suggesting that the extraction of salient visual information may be made more effective by paying attention to specific features at varying scales. Visual changes in the body due to physiological processes also occur at different scales and with modality-specific characteristic properties. Inspired by this, we present BigSmall, an efficient architecture for physiological and behavioral measurement. We present the first joint camera-based facial action, cardiac, and pulmonary measurement model. We propose a multi-branch network with wrapping temporal shift modules that yields both accuracy and efficiency gains. We observe that fusing low-level features leads to suboptimal performance, but that fusing high level features enables efficiency gains with negligible loss in accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that BigSmall significantly reduces the computational costs. Furthermore, compared to existing task-specific models, BigSmall achieves comparable or better results on multiple physiological measurement tasks simultaneously with a unified model.