The degree to which neural networks can generalize to new combinations of familiar concepts, and the conditions under which they are able to do so, has long been an open question. In this work, we study the systematicity gap in visual question answering: the performance difference between reasoning on previously seen and unseen combinations of object attributes. To test, we introduce a novel diagnostic dataset, CLEVR-HOPE. We find that while increased quantity of training data does not reduce the systematicity gap, increased training data diversity of the attributes in the unseen combination does. In all, our experiments suggest that the more distinct attribute type combinations are seen during training, the more systematic we can expect the resulting model to be.
Efficient vision works maximize accuracy under a latency budget. These works evaluate accuracy offline, one image at a time. However, real-time vision applications like autonomous driving operate in streaming settings, where ground truth changes between inference start and finish. This results in a significant accuracy drop. Therefore, a recent work proposed to maximize accuracy in streaming settings on average. In this paper, we propose to maximize streaming accuracy for every environment context. We posit that scenario difficulty influences the initial (offline) accuracy difference, while obstacle displacement in the scene affects the subsequent accuracy degradation. Our method, Octopus, uses these scenario properties to select configurations that maximize streaming accuracy at test time. Our method improves tracking performance (S-MOTA) by 7.4% over the conventional static approach. Further, performance improvement using our method comes in addition to, and not instead of, advances in offline accuracy.
Representation learning that leverages large-scale labelled datasets, is central to recent progress in machine learning. Access to task relevant labels at scale is often scarce or expensive, motivating the need to learn from unlabelled datasets with self-supervised learning (SSL). Such large unlabelled datasets (with data augmentations) often provide a good coverage of the underlying input distribution. However evaluating the representations learned by SSL algorithms still requires task-specific labelled samples in the training pipeline. Additionally, the generalization of task-specific encoding is often sensitive to potential distribution shift. Inspired by recent advances in theoretical machine learning and vision neuroscience, we observe that the eigenspectrum of the empirical feature covariance matrix often follows a power law. For visual representations, we estimate the coefficient of the power law, $\alpha$, across three key attributes which influence representation learning: learning objective (supervised, SimCLR, Barlow Twins and BYOL), network architecture (VGG, ResNet and Vision Transformer), and tasks (object and scene recognition). We observe that under mild conditions, proximity of $\alpha$ to 1, is strongly correlated to the downstream generalization performance. Furthermore, $\alpha \approx 1$ is a strong indicator of robustness to label noise during fine-tuning. Notably, $\alpha$ is computable from the representations without knowledge of any labels, thereby offering a framework to evaluate the quality of representations in unlabelled datasets.
We introduce the "inverse bandit" problem of estimating the rewards of a multi-armed bandit instance from observing the learning process of a low-regret demonstrator. Existing approaches to the related problem of inverse reinforcement learning assume the execution of an optimal policy, and thereby suffer from an identifiability issue. In contrast, our paradigm leverages the demonstrator's behavior en route to optimality, and in particular, the exploration phase, to obtain consistent reward estimates. We develop simple and efficient reward estimation procedures for demonstrations within a class of upper-confidence-based algorithms, showing that reward estimation gets progressively easier as the regret of the algorithm increases. We match these upper bounds with information-theoretic lower bounds that apply to any demonstrator algorithm, thereby characterizing the optimal tradeoff between exploration and reward estimation. Extensive empirical evaluations on both synthetic data and simulated experimental design data from the natural sciences corroborate our theoretical results.
While normalizing flows have led to significant advances in modeling high-dimensional continuous distributions, their applicability to discrete distributions remains unknown. In this paper, we show that flows can in fact be extended to discrete events---and under a simple change-of-variables formula not requiring log-determinant-Jacobian computations. Discrete flows have numerous applications. We consider two flow architectures: discrete autoregressive flows that enable bidirectionality, allowing, for example, tokens in text to depend on both left-to-right and right-to-left contexts in an exact language model; and discrete bipartite flows that enable efficient non-autoregressive generation as in RealNVP. Empirically, we find that discrete autoregressive flows outperform autoregressive baselines on synthetic discrete distributions, an addition task, and Potts models; and bipartite flows can obtain competitive performance with autoregressive baselines on character-level language modeling for Penn Tree Bank and text8.
Efficient audio synthesis is an inherently difficult machine learning task, as human perception is sensitive to both global structure and fine-scale waveform coherence. Autoregressive models, such as WaveNet, model local structure at the expense of global latent structure and slow iterative sampling, while Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), have global latent conditioning and efficient parallel sampling, but struggle to generate locally-coherent audio waveforms. Herein, we demonstrate that GANs can in fact generate high-fidelity and locally-coherent audio by modeling log magnitudes and instantaneous frequencies with sufficient frequency resolution in the spectral domain. Through extensive empirical investigations on the NSynth dataset, we demonstrate that GANs are able to outperform strong WaveNet baselines on automated and human evaluation metrics, and efficiently generate audio several orders of magnitude faster than their autoregressive counterparts.
We identify two issues with the family of algorithms based on the Adversarial Imitation Learning framework. The first problem is implicit bias present in the reward functions used in these algorithms. While these biases might work well for some environments, they can also lead to sub-optimal behavior in others. Secondly, even though these algorithms can learn from few expert demonstrations, they require a prohibitively large number of interactions with the environment in order to imitate the expert for many real-world applications. In order to address these issues, we propose a new algorithm called Discriminator-Actor-Critic that uses off-policy Reinforcement Learning to reduce policy-environment interaction sample complexity by an average factor of 10. Furthermore, since our reward function is designed to be unbiased, we can apply our algorithm to many problems without making any task-specific adjustments.
Deep reinforcement learning has led to several recent breakthroughs, though the learned policies are often based on black-box neural networks. This makes them difficult to interpret and to impose desired specification constraints during learning. We present an iterative framework, MORL, for improving the learned policies using program synthesis. Concretely, we propose to use synthesis techniques to obtain a symbolic representation of the learned policy, which can then be debugged manually or automatically using program repair. After the repair step, we use behavior cloning to obtain the policy corresponding to the repaired program, which is then further improved using gradient descent. This process continues until the learned policy satisfies desired constraints. We instantiate MORL for the simple CartPole problem and show that the programmatic representation allows for high-level modifications that in turn lead to improved learning of the policies.
In this paper, we introduce Key-Value Memory Networks to a multimodal setting and a novel key-addressing mechanism to deal with sequence-to-sequence models. The proposed model naturally decomposes the problem of video captioning into vision and language segments, dealing with them as key-value pairs. More specifically, we learn a semantic embedding (v) corresponding to each frame (k) in the video, thereby creating (k, v) memory slots. We propose to find the next step attention weights conditioned on the previous attention distributions for the key-value memory slots in the memory addressing schema. Exploiting this flexibility of the framework, we additionally capture spatial dependencies while mapping from the visual to semantic embedding. Experiments done on the Youtube2Text dataset demonstrate usefulness of recurrent key-addressing, while achieving competitive scores on BLEU@4, METEOR metrics against state-of-the-art models.