We introduce a method to generate 3D scenes that are disentangled into their component objects. This disentanglement is unsupervised, relying only on the knowledge of a large pretrained text-to-image model. Our key insight is that objects can be discovered by finding parts of a 3D scene that, when rearranged spatially, still produce valid configurations of the same scene. Concretely, our method jointly optimizes multiple NeRFs from scratch - each representing its own object - along with a set of layouts that composite these objects into scenes. We then encourage these composited scenes to be in-distribution according to the image generator. We show that despite its simplicity, our approach successfully generates 3D scenes decomposed into individual objects, enabling new capabilities in text-to-3D content creation. For results and an interactive demo, see our project page at https://dave.ml/layoutlearning/
This paper presents a novel approach to inpainting 3D regions of a scene, given masked multi-view images, by distilling a 2D diffusion model into a learned 3D scene representation (e.g. a NeRF). Unlike 3D generative methods that explicitly condition the diffusion model on camera pose or multi-view information, our diffusion model is conditioned only on a single masked 2D image. Nevertheless, we show that this 2D diffusion model can still serve as a generative prior in a 3D multi-view reconstruction problem where we optimize a NeRF using a combination of score distillation sampling and NeRF reconstruction losses. Predicted depth is used as additional supervision to encourage accurate geometry. We compare our approach to 3D inpainting methods that focus on object removal. Because our method can generate content to fill any 3D masked region, we additionally demonstrate 3D object completion, 3D object replacement, and 3D scene completion.
3D reconstruction methods such as Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs) excel at rendering photorealistic novel views of complex scenes. However, recovering a high-quality NeRF typically requires tens to hundreds of input images, resulting in a time-consuming capture process. We present ReconFusion to reconstruct real-world scenes using only a few photos. Our approach leverages a diffusion prior for novel view synthesis, trained on synthetic and multiview datasets, which regularizes a NeRF-based 3D reconstruction pipeline at novel camera poses beyond those captured by the set of input images. Our method synthesizes realistic geometry and texture in underconstrained regions while preserving the appearance of observed regions. We perform an extensive evaluation across various real-world datasets, including forward-facing and 360-degree scenes, demonstrating significant performance improvements over previous few-view NeRF reconstruction approaches.
Bayesian inference offers benefits over maximum likelihood, but it also comes with computational costs. Computing the posterior is typically intractable, as is marginalizing that posterior to form the posterior predictive distribution. In this paper, we present variational prediction, a technique for directly learning a variational approximation to the posterior predictive distribution using a variational bound. This approach can provide good predictive distributions without test time marginalization costs. We demonstrate Variational Prediction on an illustrative toy example.
Large-scale generative models are capable of producing high-quality images from detailed text descriptions. However, many aspects of an image are difficult or impossible to convey through text. We introduce self-guidance, a method that provides greater control over generated images by guiding the internal representations of diffusion models. We demonstrate that properties such as the shape, location, and appearance of objects can be extracted from these representations and used to steer sampling. Self-guidance works similarly to classifier guidance, but uses signals present in the pretrained model itself, requiring no additional models or training. We show how a simple set of properties can be composed to perform challenging image manipulations, such as modifying the position or size of objects, merging the appearance of objects in one image with the layout of another, composing objects from many images into one, and more. We also show that self-guidance can be used to edit real images. For results and an interactive demo, see our project page at https://dave.ml/selfguidance/
Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs) have emerged as a powerful neural 3D representation for objects and scenes derived from 2D data. Generating NeRFs, however, remains difficult in many scenarios. For instance, training a NeRF with only a small number of views as supervision remains challenging since it is an under-constrained problem. In such settings, it calls for some inductive prior to filter out bad local minima. One way to introduce such inductive priors is to learn a generative model for NeRFs modeling a certain class of scenes. In this paper, we propose to use a diffusion model to generate NeRFs encoded on a regularized grid. We show that our model can sample realistic NeRFs, while at the same time allowing conditional generations, given a certain observation as guidance.
We present DreamBooth3D, an approach to personalize text-to-3D generative models from as few as 3-6 casually captured images of a subject. Our approach combines recent advances in personalizing text-to-image models (DreamBooth) with text-to-3D generation (DreamFusion). We find that naively combining these methods fails to yield satisfactory subject-specific 3D assets due to personalized text-to-image models overfitting to the input viewpoints of the subject. We overcome this through a 3-stage optimization strategy where we jointly leverage the 3D consistency of neural radiance fields together with the personalization capability of text-to-image models. Our method can produce high-quality, subject-specific 3D assets with text-driven modifications such as novel poses, colors and attributes that are not seen in any of the input images of the subject.
While deep learning models have replaced hand-designed features across many domains, these models are still trained with hand-designed optimizers. In this work, we leverage the same scaling approach behind the success of deep learning to learn versatile optimizers. We train an optimizer for deep learning which is itself a small neural network that ingests gradients and outputs parameter updates. Meta-trained with approximately four thousand TPU-months of compute on a wide variety of optimization tasks, our optimizer not only exhibits compelling performance, but optimizes in interesting and unexpected ways. It requires no hyperparameter tuning, instead automatically adapting to the specifics of the problem being optimized. We open source our learned optimizer, meta-training code, the associated train and test data, and an extensive optimizer benchmark suite with baselines at velo-code.github.io.
We present Imagen Video, a text-conditional video generation system based on a cascade of video diffusion models. Given a text prompt, Imagen Video generates high definition videos using a base video generation model and a sequence of interleaved spatial and temporal video super-resolution models. We describe how we scale up the system as a high definition text-to-video model including design decisions such as the choice of fully-convolutional temporal and spatial super-resolution models at certain resolutions, and the choice of the v-parameterization of diffusion models. In addition, we confirm and transfer findings from previous work on diffusion-based image generation to the video generation setting. Finally, we apply progressive distillation to our video models with classifier-free guidance for fast, high quality sampling. We find Imagen Video not only capable of generating videos of high fidelity, but also having a high degree of controllability and world knowledge, including the ability to generate diverse videos and text animations in various artistic styles and with 3D object understanding. See https://imagen.research.google/video/ for samples.
Recent breakthroughs in text-to-image synthesis have been driven by diffusion models trained on billions of image-text pairs. Adapting this approach to 3D synthesis would require large-scale datasets of labeled 3D data and efficient architectures for denoising 3D data, neither of which currently exist. In this work, we circumvent these limitations by using a pretrained 2D text-to-image diffusion model to perform text-to-3D synthesis. We introduce a loss based on probability density distillation that enables the use of a 2D diffusion model as a prior for optimization of a parametric image generator. Using this loss in a DeepDream-like procedure, we optimize a randomly-initialized 3D model (a Neural Radiance Field, or NeRF) via gradient descent such that its 2D renderings from random angles achieve a low loss. The resulting 3D model of the given text can be viewed from any angle, relit by arbitrary illumination, or composited into any 3D environment. Our approach requires no 3D training data and no modifications to the image diffusion model, demonstrating the effectiveness of pretrained image diffusion models as priors.