Project Aria pushes the frontiers of Egocentric AI with large-scale real-world data collection using purposely designed glasses with privacy first approach. To protect the privacy of bystanders being recorded by the glasses, our research protocols are designed to ensure recorded video is processed by an AI anonymization model that removes bystander faces and vehicle license plates. Detected face and license plate regions are processed with a Gaussian blur such that these personal identification information (PII) regions are obscured. This process helps to ensure that anonymized versions of the video is retained for research purposes. In Project Aria, we have developed a state-of-the-art anonymization system EgoBlur. In this paper, we present extensive analysis of EgoBlur on challenging datasets comparing its performance with other state-of-the-art systems from industry and academia including extensive Responsible AI analysis on recently released Casual Conversations V2 dataset.
Open radio access network (ORAN) provides an open architecture to implement radio access network (RAN) of the fifth generation (5G) and beyond mobile communications. As a key technology for the evolution to the sixth generation (6G) systems, cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CF-mMIMO) can effectively improve the spectrum efficiency, peak rate and reliability of wireless communication systems. Starting from scalable implementation of CF-mMIMO, we study a cell-free RAN (CF-RAN) under the ORAN architecture. Through theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, we investigate the uplink and downlink spectral efficiencies of CF-mMIMO with the new architecture. We then discuss the implementation issues of CF-RAN under ORAN architecture, including time-frequency synchronization and over-the-air reciprocity calibration, low layer splitting, deployment of ORAN radio units (O-RU), artificial intelligent based user associations. Finally, we present some representative experimental results for the uplink distributed reception and downlink coherent joint transmission of CF-RAN with commercial off-the-shelf O-RUs.
Osteoporosis is a common chronic metabolic bone disease that is often under-diagnosed and under-treated due to the limited access to bone mineral density (BMD) examinations, e.g. via Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). In this paper, we propose a method to predict BMD from Chest X-ray (CXR), one of the most commonly accessible and low-cost medical imaging examinations. Our method first automatically detects Regions of Interest (ROIs) of local and global bone structures from the CXR. Then a multi-ROI deep model with transformer encoder is developed to exploit both local and global information in the chest X-ray image for accurate BMD estimation. Our method is evaluated on 13719 CXR patient cases with their ground truth BMD scores measured by gold-standard DXA. The model predicted BMD has a strong correlation with the ground truth (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.889 on lumbar 1). When applied for osteoporosis screening, it achieves a high classification performance (AUC 0.963 on lumbar 1). As the first effort in the field using CXR scans to predict the BMD, the proposed algorithm holds strong potential in early osteoporosis screening and public health promotion.
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerate joint disorder that affects a large population of elderly people worldwide. Accurate radiographic assessment of knee OA severity plays a critical role in chronic patient management. Current clinically-adopted knee OA grading systems are observer subjective and suffer from inter-rater disagreements. In this work, we propose a computer-aided diagnosis approach to provide more accurate and consistent assessments of both composite and fine-grained OA grades simultaneously. A novel semi-supervised learning method is presented to exploit the underlying coherence in the composite and fine-grained OA grades by learning from unlabeled data. By representing the grade coherence using the log-probability of a pre-trained Gaussian Mixture Model, we formulate an incoherence loss to incorporate unlabeled data in training. The proposed method also describes a keypoint-based pooling network, where deep image features are pooled from the disease-targeted keypoints (extracted along the knee joint) to provide more aligned and pathologically informative feature representations, for accurate OA grade assessments. The proposed method is comprehensively evaluated on the public Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) data, a multi-center ten-year observational study on 4,796 subjects. Experimental results demonstrate that our method leads to significant improvements over previous strong whole image-based deep classification network baselines (like ResNet-50).
* extension of RSNA 2020 report "Consistent and Coherent Computer-Aided
Knee Osteoarthritis Assessment from Plain Radiographs"
Landmark localization plays an important role in medical image analysis. Learning based methods, including CNN and GCN, have demonstrated the state-of-the-art performance. However, most of these methods are fully-supervised and heavily rely on manual labeling of a large training dataset. In this paper, based on a fully-supervised graph-based method, DAG, we proposed a semi-supervised extension of it, termed few-shot DAG, \ie five-shot DAG. It first trains a DAG model on the labeled data and then fine-tunes the pre-trained model on the unlabeled data with a teacher-student SSL mechanism. In addition to the semi-supervised loss, we propose another loss using JS divergence to regulate the consistency of the intermediate feature maps. We extensively evaluated our method on pelvis, hand and chest landmark detection tasks. Our experiment results demonstrate consistent and significant improvements over previous methods.
Osteoporosis is a common chronic metabolic bone disease that is often under-diagnosed and under-treated due to the limited access to bone mineral density (BMD) examinations, Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). In this paper, we propose a method to predict BMD from Chest X-ray (CXR), one of the most common, accessible, and low-cost medical image examinations. Our method first automatically detects Regions of Interest (ROIs) of local and global bone structures from the CXR. Then a multi-ROI model is developed to exploit both local and global information in the chest X-ray image for accurate BMD estimation. Our method is evaluated on 329 CXR cases with ground truth BMD measured by DXA. The model predicted BMD has a strong correlation with the gold standard DXA BMD (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.840). When applied for osteoporosis screening, it achieves a high classification performance (AUC 0.936). As the first effort in the field to use CXR scans to predict the spine BMD, the proposed algorithm holds strong potential in enabling early osteoporosis screening through routine chest X-rays and contributing to the enhancement of public health.
Bone mineral density (BMD) is a clinically critical indicator of osteoporosis, usually measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Due to the limited accessibility of DEXA machines and examinations, osteoporosis is often under-diagnosed and under-treated, leading to increased fragility fracture risks. Thus it is highly desirable to obtain BMDs with alternative cost-effective and more accessible medical imaging examinations such as X-ray plain films. In this work, we formulate the BMD estimation from plain hip X-ray images as a regression problem. Specifically, we propose a new semi-supervised self-training algorithm to train the BMD regression model using images coupled with DEXA measured BMDs and unlabeled images with pseudo BMDs. Pseudo BMDs are generated and refined iteratively for unlabeled images during self-training. We also present a novel adaptive triplet loss to improve the model's regression accuracy. On an in-house dataset of 1,090 images (819 unique patients), our BMD estimation method achieves a high Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.8805 to ground-truth BMDs. It offers good feasibility to use the more accessible and cheaper X-ray imaging for opportunistic osteoporosis screening.
Exploiting available medical records to train high performance computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) models via the semi-supervised learning (SSL) setting is emerging to tackle the prohibitively high labor costs involved in large-scale medical image annotations. Despite the extensive attentions received on SSL, previous methods failed to 1) account for the low disease prevalence in medical records and 2) utilize the image-level diagnosis indicated from the medical records. Both issues are unique to SSL for CAD models. In this work, we propose a new knowledge distillation method that effectively exploits large-scale image-level labels extracted from the medical records, augmented with limited expert annotated region-level labels, to train a rib and clavicle fracture CAD model for chest X-ray (CXR). Our method leverages the teacher-student model paradigm and features a novel adaptive asymmetric label sharpening (AALS) algorithm to address the label imbalance problem that specially exists in medical domain. Our approach is extensively evaluated on all CXR (N = 65,845) from the trauma registry of anonymous hospital over a period of 9 years (2008-2016), on the most common rib and clavicle fractures. The experiment results demonstrate that our method achieves the state-of-the-art fracture detection performance, i.e., an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.9318 and a free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) score of 0.8914 on the rib fractures, significantly outperforming previous approaches by an AUROC gap of 1.63% and an FROC improvement by 3.74%. Consistent performance gains are also observed for clavicle fracture detection.