In this paper, a three-dimensional (3-D) non-stationary wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel model based on the WINNER+ channel model is proposed. The angular distributions of clusters in both the horizontal and vertical planes are jointly considered. The receiver and clusters can be moving, which makes the model more general. Parameters including number of clusters, powers, delays, azimuth angles of departure (AAoDs), azimuth angles of arrival (AAoAs), elevation angles of departure (EAoDs), and elevation angles of arrival (EAoAs) are time-variant. The cluster time evolution is modeled using a birth-death process. Statistical properties, including spatial cross-correlation function (CCF), temporal autocorrelation function (ACF), Doppler power spectrum density (PSD), level-crossing rate (LCR), average fading duration (AFD), and stationary interval are investigated and analyzed. The LCR, AFD, and stationary interval of the proposed channel model are validated against the measurement data. Numerical and simulation results show that the proposed channel model has the ability to reproduce the main properties of real non-stationary channels. Furthermore, the proposed channel model can be adapted to various communication scenarios by adjusting different parameter values.
Integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) has attracted wide attention as an emerging application scenario for the sixth generation (6G) wireless communication system. In this paper, a novel three-dimensional (3D) non-stationary localization-assisted ISAC geometry-based stochastic model (GBSM) is proposed. The locations of the first-bounce scatterer and last-bounce scatterer in the communication channel can be estimated by the particle filter with the assistance of backscattering sensing. The important channel statistical properties of the proposed channel model are simulated and compared with the ray tracing (RT) results, including the delay spread, azimuth angle of departure/arrival (AAoD/AAoA) spread, and elevation angle of departure/arrival (EAoD/EAoA) spread. The simulation results of the proposed channel model show a good agreement with the RT results, which proves the correctness of the proposed channel model. Utilizing the localization parameters of scatterers, the proposed ISAC channel model can better map the real environment.
Topic models are one of the compelling methods for discovering latent semantics in a document collection. However, it assumes that a document has sufficient co-occurrence information to be effective. However, in short texts, co-occurrence information is minimal, which results in feature sparsity in document representation. Therefore, existing topic models (probabilistic or neural) mostly fail to mine patterns from them to generate coherent topics. In this paper, we take a new approach to short-text topic modeling to address the data-sparsity issue by extending short text into longer sequences using existing pre-trained language models (PLMs). Besides, we provide a simple solution extending a neural topic model to reduce the effect of noisy out-of-topics text generation from PLMs. We observe that our model can substantially improve the performance of short-text topic modeling. Extensive experiments on multiple real-world datasets under extreme data sparsity scenarios show that our models can generate high-quality topics outperforming state-of-the-art models.
Text style transfer is a prominent task that aims to control the style of text without inherently changing its factual content. To cover more text modification applications, such as adapting past news for current events and repurposing educational materials, we propose the task of text fact transfer, which seeks to transfer the factual content of a source text between topics without modifying its style. We find that existing language models struggle with text fact transfer, due to their inability to preserve the specificity and phrasing of the source text, and tendency to hallucinate errors. To address these issues, we design ModQGA, a framework that minimally modifies a source text with a novel combination of end-to-end question generation and specificity-aware question answering. Through experiments on four existing datasets adapted for text fact transfer, we show that ModQGA can accurately transfer factual content without sacrificing the style of the source text.
We introduce a new task called *entity-centric question generation* (ECQG), motivated by real-world applications such as topic-specific learning, assisted reading, and fact-checking. The task aims to generate questions from an entity perspective. To solve ECQG, we propose a coherent PLM-based framework GenCONE with two novel modules: content focusing and question verification. The content focusing module first identifies a focus as "what to ask" to form draft questions, and the question verification module refines the questions afterwards by verifying the answerability. We also construct a large-scale open-domain dataset from SQuAD to support this task. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that GenCONE significantly and consistently outperforms various baselines, and two modules are effective and complementary in generating high-quality questions.
Existing methods have demonstrated effective performance on a single degradation type. In practical applications, however, the degradation is often unknown, and the mismatch between the model and the degradation will result in a severe performance drop. In this paper, we propose an all-in-one image restoration network that tackles multiple degradations. Due to the heterogeneous nature of different types of degradations, it is difficult to process multiple degradations in a single network. To this end, we propose to learn a neural degradation representation (NDR) that captures the underlying characteristics of various degradations. The learned NDR decomposes different types of degradations adaptively, similar to a neural dictionary that represents basic degradation components. Subsequently, we develop a degradation query module and a degradation injection module to effectively recognize and utilize the specific degradation based on NDR, enabling the all-in-one restoration ability for multiple degradations. Moreover, we propose a bidirectional optimization strategy to effectively drive NDR to learn the degradation representation by optimizing the degradation and restoration processes alternately. Comprehensive experiments on representative types of degradations (including noise, haze, rain, and downsampling) demonstrate the effectiveness and generalization capability of our method.
We present a novel system that automatically extracts and generates informative and descriptive sentences from the biomedical corpus and facilitates the efficient search for relational knowledge. Unlike previous search engines or exploration systems that retrieve unconnected passages, our system organizes descriptive sentences as a relational graph, enabling researchers to explore closely related biomedical entities (e.g., diseases treated by a chemical) or indirectly connected entities (e.g., potential drugs for treating a disease). Our system also uses ChatGPT and a fine-tuned relation synthesis model to generate concise and reliable descriptive sentences from retrieved information, reducing the need for extensive human reading effort. With our system, researchers can easily obtain both high-level knowledge and detailed references and interactively steer to the information of interest. We spotlight the application of our system in COVID-19 research, illustrating its utility in areas such as drug repurposing and literature curation.
Misconfigurations are the major causes of software failures. Existing configuration validation techniques rely on manually written rules or test cases, which are expensive to implement and maintain, and are hard to be comprehensive. Leveraging machine learning (ML) and natural language processing (NLP) for configuration validation is considered a promising direction, but has been facing challenges such as the need of not only large-scale configuration data, but also system-specific features and models which are hard to generalize. Recent advances in Large Language Models (LLMs) show the promises to address some of the long-lasting limitations of ML/NLP-based configuration validation techniques. In this paper, we present an exploratory analysis on the feasibility and effectiveness of using LLMs like GPT and Codex for configuration validation. Specifically, we take a first step to empirically evaluate LLMs as configuration validators without additional fine-tuning or code generation. We develop a generic LLM-based validation framework, named Ciri, which integrates different LLMs. Ciri devises effective prompt engineering with few-shot learning based on both valid configuration and misconfiguration data. Ciri also validates and aggregates the outputs of LLMs to generate validation results, coping with known hallucination and nondeterminism of LLMs. We evaluate the validation effectiveness of Ciri on five popular LLMs using configuration data of six mature, widely deployed open-source systems. Our analysis (1) confirms the potential of using LLMs for configuration validation, (2) understands the design space of LLMbased validators like Ciri, especially in terms of prompt engineering with few-shot learning, and (3) reveals open challenges such as ineffectiveness in detecting certain types of misconfigurations and biases to popular configuration parameters.
Diffusion models have demonstrated compelling generation quality by optimizing the variational lower bound through a simple denoising score matching loss. In this paper, we provide theoretical evidence that the prevailing practice of using a constant loss weight strategy in diffusion models leads to biased estimation during the training phase. Simply optimizing the denoising network to predict Gaussian noise with constant weighting may hinder precise estimations of original images. To address the issue, we propose an elegant and effective weighting strategy grounded in the theoretically unbiased principle. Moreover, we conduct a comprehensive and systematic exploration to dissect the inherent bias problem deriving from constant weighting loss from the perspectives of its existence, impact and reasons. These analyses are expected to advance our understanding and demystify the inner workings of diffusion models. Through empirical evaluation, we demonstrate that our proposed debiased estimation method significantly enhances sample quality without the reliance on complex techniques, and exhibits improved efficiency compared to the baseline method both in training and sampling processes.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have emerged as a groundbreaking technology with their unparalleled text generation capabilities across various applications. Nevertheless, concerns persist regarding the accuracy and appropriateness of their generated content. A contemporary methodology, self-correction, has been proposed as a remedy to these issues. Building upon this premise, this paper critically examines the role and efficacy of self-correction within LLMs, shedding light on its true potential and limitations. Central to our investigation is the notion of intrinsic self-correction, whereby an LLM attempts to correct its initial responses based solely on its inherent capabilities, without the crutch of external feedback. In the context of reasoning, our research indicates that LLMs struggle to self-correct their responses without external feedback, and at times, their performance might even degrade post self-correction. Drawing from these insights, we offer suggestions for future research and practical applications in this field.