Fair graph partition of social networks is a crucial step toward ensuring fair and non-discriminatory treatments in unsupervised user analysis. Current fair partition methods typically consider node balance, a notion pursuing a proportionally balanced number of nodes from all demographic groups, but ignore the bias induced by imbalanced edges in each cluster. To address this gap, we propose a notion edge balance to measure the proportion of edges connecting different demographic groups in clusters. We analyze the relations between node balance and edge balance, then with line graph transformations, we propose a co-embedding framework to learn dual node and edge fairness-aware representations for graph partition. We validate our framework through several social network datasets and observe balanced partition in terms of both nodes and edges along with good utility. Moreover, we demonstrate our fair partition can be used as pseudo labels to facilitate graph neural networks to behave fairly in node classification and link prediction tasks.
Automatic Pronunciation Assessment (APA) is vital for computer-assisted language learning. Prior methods rely on annotated speech-text data to train Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) models or speech-score data to train regression models. In this work, we propose a novel zero-shot APA method based on the pre-trained acoustic model, HuBERT. Our method involves encoding speech input and corrupting them via a masking module. We then employ the Transformer encoder and apply k-means clustering to obtain token sequences. Finally, a scoring module is designed to measure the number of wrongly recovered tokens. Experimental results on speechocean762 demonstrate that the proposed method achieves comparable performance to supervised regression baselines and outperforms non-regression baselines in terms of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC). Additionally, we analyze how masking strategies affect the performance of APA.
Many research efforts have been committed to unsupervised domain adaptation (DA) problems that transfer knowledge learned from a labeled source domain to an unlabeled target domain. Various DA methods have achieved remarkable results recently in terms of predicting ability, which implies the effectiveness of the aforementioned knowledge transferring. However, state-of-the-art methods rarely probe deeper into the transferred mechanism, leaving the true essence of such knowledge obscure. Recognizing its importance in the adaptation process, we propose an interpretive model of unsupervised domain adaptation, as the first attempt to visually unveil the mystery of transferred knowledge. Adapting the existing concept of the prototype from visual image interpretation to the DA task, our model similarly extracts shared information from the domain-invariant representations as prototype vectors. Furthermore, we extend the current prototype method with our novel prediction calibration and knowledge fidelity preservation modules, to orientate the learned prototypes to the actual transferred knowledge. By visualizing these prototypes, our method not only provides an intuitive explanation for the base model's predictions but also unveils transfer knowledge by matching the image patches with the same semantics across both source and target domains. Comprehensive experiments and in-depth explorations demonstrate the efficacy of our method in understanding the transferred mechanism and its potential in downstream tasks including model diagnosis.
Generalized Zero-Shot Learning (GZSL) and Open-Set Recognition (OSR) are two mainstream settings that greatly extend conventional visual object recognition. However, the limitations of their problem settings are not negligible. The novel categories in GZSL require pre-defined semantic labels, making the problem setting less realistic; the oversimplified unknown class in OSR fails to explore the innate fine-grained and mixed structures of novel categories. In light of this, we are motivated to consider a new problem setting named Zero-Knowledge Zero-Shot Learning (ZK-ZSL) that assumes no prior knowledge of novel classes and aims to classify seen and unseen samples and recover semantic attributes of the fine-grained novel categories for further interpretation. To achieve this, we propose a novel framework that recovers the clustering structures of both seen and unseen categories where the seen class structures are guided by source labels. In addition, a structural alignment loss is designed to aid the semantic learning of unseen categories with their recovered structures. Experimental results demonstrate our method's superior performance in classification and semantic recovery on four benchmark datasets.
Fairness is an essential factor for machine learning systems deployed in high-stake applications. Among all fairness notions, individual fairness, following a consensus that `similar individuals should be treated similarly,' is a vital notion to guarantee fair treatment for individual cases. Previous methods typically characterize individual fairness as a prediction-invariant problem when perturbing sensitive attributes, and solve it by adopting the Distributionally Robust Optimization (DRO) paradigm. However, adversarial perturbations along a direction covering sensitive information do not consider the inherent feature correlations or innate data constraints, and thus mislead the model to optimize at off-manifold and unrealistic samples. In light of this, we propose a method to learn and generate antidote data that approximately follows the data distribution to remedy individual unfairness. These on-manifold antidote data can be used through a generic optimization procedure with original training data, resulting in a pure pre-processing approach to individual unfairness, or can also fit well with the in-processing DRO paradigm. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate our antidote data resists individual unfairness at a minimal or zero cost to the model's predictive utility.
Influence function, a method from robust statistics, measures the changes of model parameters or some functions about model parameters concerning the removal or modification of training instances. It is an efficient and useful post-hoc method for studying the interpretability of machine learning models without the need for expensive model re-training. Recently, graph convolution networks (GCNs), which operate on graph data, have attracted a great deal of attention. However, there is no preceding research on the influence functions of GCNs to shed light on the effects of removing training nodes/edges from an input graph. Since the nodes/edges in a graph are interdependent in GCNs, it is challenging to derive influence functions for GCNs. To fill this gap, we started with the simple graph convolution (SGC) model that operates on an attributed graph and formulated an influence function to approximate the changes in model parameters when a node or an edge is removed from an attributed graph. Moreover, we theoretically analyzed the error bound of the estimated influence of removing an edge. We experimentally validated the accuracy and effectiveness of our influence estimation function. In addition, we showed that the influence function of an SGC model could be used to estimate the impact of removing training nodes/edges on the test performance of the SGC without re-training the model. Finally, we demonstrated how to use influence functions to guide the adversarial attacks on GCNs effectively.
Clustering algorithms are widely used in many societal resource allocation applications, such as loan approvals and candidate recruitment, among others, and hence, biased or unfair model outputs can adversely impact individuals that rely on these applications. To this end, many fair clustering approaches have been recently proposed to counteract this issue. Due to the potential for significant harm, it is essential to ensure that fair clustering algorithms provide consistently fair outputs even under adversarial influence. However, fair clustering algorithms have not been studied from an adversarial attack perspective. In contrast to previous research, we seek to bridge this gap and conduct a robustness analysis against fair clustering by proposing a novel black-box fairness attack. Through comprehensive experiments, we find that state-of-the-art models are highly susceptible to our attack as it can reduce their fairness performance significantly. Finally, we propose Consensus Fair Clustering (CFC), the first robust fair clustering approach that transforms consensus clustering into a fair graph partitioning problem, and iteratively learns to generate fair cluster outputs. Experimentally, we observe that CFC is highly robust to the proposed attack and is thus a truly robust fair clustering alternative.
In this paper, we consider a novel research problem, music-to-text synaesthesia. Different from the classical music tagging problem that classifies a music recording into pre-defined categories, the music-to-text synaesthesia aims to generate descriptive texts from music recordings for further understanding. Although this is a new and interesting application to the machine learning community, to our best knowledge, the existing music-related datasets do not contain the semantic descriptions on music recordings and cannot serve the music-to-text synaesthesia task. In light of this, we collect a new dataset that contains 1,955 aligned pairs of classical music recordings and text descriptions. Based on this, we build a computational model to generate sentences that can describe the content of the music recording. To tackle the highly non-discriminative classical music, we design a group topology-preservation loss in our computational model, which considers more samples as a group reference and preserves the relative topology among different samples. Extensive experimental results qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model over five heuristics or pre-trained competitive methods and their variants on our collected dataset.
Prevailing deep graph learning models often suffer from label sparsity issue. Although many graph few-shot learning (GFL) methods have been developed to avoid performance degradation in face of limited annotated data, they excessively rely on labeled data, where the distribution shift in the test phase might result in impaired generalization ability. Additionally, they lack a general purpose as their designs are coupled with task or data-specific characteristics. To this end, we propose a general and effective Contrastive Graph Few-shot Learning framework (CGFL). CGFL leverages a self-distilled contrastive learning procedure to boost GFL. Specifically, our model firstly pre-trains a graph encoder with contrastive learning using unlabeled data. Later, the trained encoder is frozen as a teacher model to distill a student model with a contrastive loss. The distilled model is finally fed to GFL. CGFL learns data representation in a self-supervised manner, thus mitigating the distribution shift impact for better generalization and making model task and data-independent for a general graph mining purpose. Furthermore, we introduce an information-based method to quantitatively measure the capability of CGFL. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that CGFL outperforms state-of-the-art baselines on several graph mining tasks in the few-shot scenario. We also provide quantitative measurement of CGFL's success.
Corporate credit ratings issued by third-party rating agencies are quantified assessments of a company's creditworthiness. Credit Ratings highly correlate to the likelihood of a company defaulting on its debt obligations. These ratings play critical roles in investment decision-making as one of the key risk factors. They are also central to the regulatory framework such as BASEL II in calculating necessary capital for financial institutions. Being able to predict rating changes will greatly benefit both investors and regulators alike. In this paper, we consider the corporate credit rating migration early prediction problem, which predicts the credit rating of an issuer will be upgraded, unchanged, or downgraded after 12 months based on its latest financial reporting information at the time. We investigate the effectiveness of different standard machine learning algorithms and conclude these models deliver inferior performance. As part of our contribution, we propose a new Multi-task Envisioning Transformer-based Autoencoder (META) model to tackle this challenging problem. META consists of Positional Encoding, Transformer-based Autoencoder, and Multi-task Prediction to learn effective representations for both migration prediction and rating prediction. This enables META to better explore the historical data in the training stage for one-year later prediction. Experimental results show that META outperforms all baseline models.