The increasing volume of log data produced by software-intensive systems makes it impractical to analyze them manually. Many deep learning-based methods have been proposed for log-based anomaly detection. These methods face several challenges such as high-dimensional and noisy log data, class imbalance, generalization, and model interpretability. Recently, ChatGPT has shown promising results in various domains. However, there is still a lack of study on the application of ChatGPT for log-based anomaly detection. In this work, we proposed LogGPT, a log-based anomaly detection framework based on ChatGPT. By leveraging the ChatGPT's language interpretation capabilities, LogGPT aims to explore the transferability of knowledge from large-scale corpora to log-based anomaly detection. We conduct experiments to evaluate the performance of LogGPT and compare it with three deep learning-based methods on BGL and Spirit datasets. LogGPT shows promising results and has good interpretability. This study provides preliminary insights into prompt-based models, such as ChatGPT, for the log-based anomaly detection task.
Deploying various deep learning (DL) models efficiently has boosted the research on DL compilers. The difficulty of generating optimized tensor codes drives DL compiler to ask for the auto-tuning approaches, and the increasing demands require increasing auto-tuning efficiency and quality. Currently, the DL compilers partition the input DL models into several subgraphs and leverage the auto-tuning to find the optimal tensor codes of these subgraphs. However, existing auto-tuning approaches usually regard subgraphs as individual ones and overlook the similarities across them, and thus fail to exploit better tensor codes under limited time budgets. We propose FamilySeer, an auto-tuning framework for DL compilers that can generate better tensor codes even with limited time budgets. FamilySeer exploits the similarities and differences among subgraphs can organize them into subgraph families, where the tuning of one subgraph can also improve other subgraphs within the same family. The cost model of each family gets more purified training samples generated by the family and becomes more accurate so that the costly measurements on real hardware can be replaced with the lightweight estimation through cost model. Our experiments show that FamilySeer can generate model codes with the same code performance more efficiently than state-of-the-art auto-tuning frameworks.
The difficulty of deploying various deep learning (DL) models on diverse DL hardware has boosted the research and development of DL compilers in the community. Several DL compilers have been proposed from both industry and academia such as Tensorflow XLA and TVM. Similarly, the DL compilers take the DL models described in different DL frameworks as input, and then generate optimized codes for diverse DL hardware as output. However, none of the existing survey has analyzed the unique design of the DL compilers comprehensively. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive survey of existing DL compilers by dissecting the commonly adopted design in details, with emphasis on the DL oriented multi-level IRs, and frontend/backend optimizations. Specifically, we provide a comprehensive comparison among existing DL compilers from various aspects. In addition, we present detailed analysis of the multi-level IR design and compiler optimization techniques. Finally, several insights are highlighted as the potential research directions of DL compiler. This is the first survey paper focusing on the unique design of DL compiler, which we hope can pave the road for future research towards the DL compiler.
The huge computation demand of deep learning models and limited computation resources on the edge devices calls for the cooperation between edge device and cloud service by splitting the deep models into two halves. However, transferring the intermediates results from the partial models between edge device and cloud service makes the user privacy vulnerable since the attacker can intercept the intermediate results and extract privacy information from them. Existing research works rely on metrics that are either impractical or insufficient to measure the effectiveness of privacy protection methods in the above scenario, especially from the aspect of a single user. In this paper, we first present a formal definition of the privacy protection problem in the edge-cloud system running DNN models. Then, we analyze the-state-of-the-art methods and point out the drawbacks of their methods, especially the evaluation metrics such as the Mutual Information (MI). In addition, we perform several experiments to demonstrate that although existing methods perform well under MI, they are not effective enough to protect the privacy of a single user. To address the drawbacks of the evaluation metrics, we propose two new metrics that are more accurate to measure the effectiveness of privacy protection methods. Finally, we highlight several potential research directions to encourage future efforts addressing the privacy protection problem.
The flourish of deep learning frameworks and hardware platforms has been demanding an efficient compiler that can shield the diversity in both software and hardware in order to provide application portability. Among the exiting deep learning compilers, TVM is well known for its efficiency in code generation and optimization across diverse hardware devices. In the meanwhile, the Sunway many-core processor renders itself as a competitive candidate for its attractive computational power in both scientific and deep learning applications. This paper combines the trends in these two directions. Specifically, we propose swTVM that extends the original TVM to support ahead-of-time compilation for architecture requiring cross-compilation such as Sunway. In addition, we leverage the architecture features during the compilation such as core group for massive parallelism, DMA for high bandwidth memory transfer and local device memory for data locality, in order to generate efficient code for deep learning application on Sunway. The experimental results show the ability of swTVM to automatically generate code for various deep neural network models on Sunway. The performance of automatically generated code for AlexNet and VGG-19 by swTVM achieves 6.71x and 2.45x speedup on average than hand-optimized OpenACC implementations on convolution and fully connected layers respectively. This work is the first attempt from the compiler perspective to bridge the gap of deep learning and high performance architecture particularly with productivity and efficiency in mind. We would like to open source the implementation so that more people can embrace the power of deep learning compiler and Sunway many-core processor.
Generative models (GMs) such as Generative Adversary Network (GAN) and Variational Auto-Encoder (VAE) have thrived these years and achieved high quality results in generating new samples. Especially in Computer Vision, GMs have been used in image inpainting, denoising and completion, which can be treated as the inference from observed pixels to corrupted pixels. However, images are hierarchically structured which are quite different from many real-world inference scenarios with non-hierarchical features. These inference scenarios contain heterogeneous stochastic variables and irregular mutual dependences. Traditionally they are modeled by Bayesian Network (BN). However, the learning and inference of BN model are NP-hard thus the number of stochastic variables in BN is highly constrained. In this paper, we adapt typical GMs to enable heterogeneous learning and inference in polynomial time.We also propose an extended autoregressive (EAR) model and an EAR with adversary loss (EARA) model and give theoretical results on their effectiveness. Experiments on several BN datasets show that our proposed EAR model achieves the best performance in most cases compared to other GMs. Except for black box analysis, we've also done a serial of experiments on Markov border inference of GMs for white box analysis and give theoretical results.