Large Language Models (LLMs) pre-trained on massive corpora have exhibited remarkable performance on various NLP tasks. However, applying these models to specific domains still poses significant challenges, such as lack of domain knowledge, limited capacity to leverage domain knowledge and inadequate adaptation to domain-specific data formats. Considering the exorbitant cost of training LLMs from scratch and the scarcity of annotated data within particular domains, in this work, we focus on domain-specific continual pre-training of LLMs using E-commerce domain as an exemplar. Specifically, we explore the impact of continual pre-training on LLMs employing unlabeled general and E-commercial corpora. Furthermore, we design a mixing strategy among different data sources to better leverage E-commercial semi-structured data. We construct multiple tasks to assess LLMs' few-shot In-context Learning ability and their zero-shot performance after instruction tuning in E-commerce domain. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of continual pre-training of E-commerce LLMs and the efficacy of our devised data mixing strategy.
Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) have recently demonstrated impressive capabilities in multimodal understanding, reasoning, and interaction. However, existing MLLMs prevalently suffer from serious hallucination problems, generating text that is not factually grounded in associated images. The problem makes existing MLLMs untrustworthy and thus impractical in real-world (especially high-stakes) applications. To address the challenge, we present RLHF-V, which enhances MLLM trustworthiness via behavior alignment from fine-grained correctional human feedback. Specifically, RLHF-V collects human preference in the form of segment-level corrections on hallucinations, and performs dense direct preference optimization over the human feedback. Comprehensive experiments on five benchmarks in both automatic and human evaluation show that, RLHF-V can enable substantially more trustworthy MLLM behaviors with promising data and computation efficiency. Remarkably, using 1.4k annotated data samples, RLHF-V significantly reduces the hallucination rate of the base MLLM by 34.8%, outperforming the concurrent LLaVA-RLHF trained on 10k annotated data. The final model achieves state-of-the-art performance in trustworthiness among open-source MLLMs, and shows better robustness than GPT-4V in preventing hallucinations aroused from over-generalization. We open-source our code, model, and data at https://github.com/RLHF-V/RLHF-V.
Writing assistance is an application closely related to human life and is also a fundamental Natural Language Processing (NLP) research field. Its aim is to improve the correctness and quality of input texts, with character checking being crucial in detecting and correcting wrong characters. From the perspective of the real world where handwriting occupies the vast majority, characters that humans get wrong include faked characters (i.e., untrue characters created due to writing errors) and misspelled characters (i.e., true characters used incorrectly due to spelling errors). However, existing datasets and related studies only focus on misspelled characters mainly caused by phonological or visual confusion, thereby ignoring faked characters which are more common and difficult. To break through this dilemma, we present Visual-C$^3$, a human-annotated Visual Chinese Character Checking dataset with faked and misspelled Chinese characters. To the best of our knowledge, Visual-C$^3$ is the first real-world visual and the largest human-crafted dataset for the Chinese character checking scenario. Additionally, we also propose and evaluate novel baseline methods on Visual-C$^3$. Extensive empirical results and analyses show that Visual-C$^3$ is high-quality yet challenging. The Visual-C$^3$ dataset and the baseline methods will be publicly available to facilitate further research in the community.
Data Augmentation through generating pseudo data has been proven effective in mitigating the challenge of data scarcity in the field of Grammatical Error Correction (GEC). Various augmentation strategies have been widely explored, most of which are motivated by two heuristics, i.e., increasing the distribution similarity and diversity of pseudo data. However, the underlying mechanism responsible for the effectiveness of these strategies remains poorly understood. In this paper, we aim to clarify how data augmentation improves GEC models. To this end, we introduce two interpretable and computationally efficient measures: Affinity and Diversity. Our findings indicate that an excellent GEC data augmentation strategy characterized by high Affinity and appropriate Diversity can better improve the performance of GEC models. Based on this observation, we propose MixEdit, a data augmentation approach that strategically and dynamically augments realistic data, without requiring extra monolingual corpora. To verify the correctness of our findings and the effectiveness of the proposed MixEdit, we conduct experiments on mainstream English and Chinese GEC datasets. The results show that MixEdit substantially improves GEC models and is complementary to traditional data augmentation methods.
In recent years, Chinese Spelling Check (CSC) has been greatly improved by designing task-specific pre-training methods or introducing auxiliary tasks, which mostly solve this task in an end-to-end fashion. In this paper, we propose to decompose the CSC workflow into detection, reasoning, and searching subtasks so that the rich external knowledge about the Chinese language can be leveraged more directly and efficiently. Specifically, we design a plug-and-play detection-and-reasoning module that is compatible with existing SOTA non-autoregressive CSC models to further boost their performance. We find that the detection-and-reasoning module trained for one model can also benefit other models. We also study the primary interpretability provided by the task decomposition. Extensive experiments and detailed analyses demonstrate the effectiveness and competitiveness of the proposed module.
* Accepted for publication in Findings of EMNLP 2023
Recent Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) exhibit impressive abilities to perceive images and follow open-ended instructions. The capabilities of MLLMs depend on two crucial factors: the model architecture to facilitate the feature alignment of visual modules and large language models; the multimodal instruction tuning datasets for human instruction following. (i) For the model architecture, most existing models introduce an external bridge module to connect vision encoders with language models, which needs an additional feature-alignment pre-training. In this work, we discover that compact pre-trained vision language models can inherently serve as ``out-of-the-box'' bridges between vision and language. Based on this, we propose Muffin framework, which directly employs pre-trained vision-language models to act as providers of visual signals. (ii) For the multimodal instruction tuning datasets, existing methods omit the complementary relationship between different datasets and simply mix datasets from different tasks. Instead, we propose UniMM-Chat dataset which explores the complementarities of datasets to generate 1.1M high-quality and diverse multimodal instructions. We merge information describing the same image from diverse datasets and transforms it into more knowledge-intensive conversation data. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the Muffin framework and UniMM-Chat dataset. Muffin achieves state-of-the-art performance on a wide range of vision-language tasks, significantly surpassing state-of-the-art models like LLaVA and InstructBLIP. Our model and dataset are all accessible at https://github.com/thunlp/muffin.
Meta learning have achieved promising performance in low-resource text classification which aims to identify target classes with knowledge transferred from source classes with sets of small tasks named episodes. However, due to the limited training data in the meta-learning scenario and the inherent properties of parameterized neural networks, poor generalization performance has become a pressing problem that needs to be addressed. To deal with this issue, we propose a meta-learning based method called Retrieval-Augmented Meta Learning(RAML). It not only uses parameterization for inference but also retrieves non-parametric knowledge from an external corpus to make inferences, which greatly alleviates the problem of poor generalization performance caused by the lack of diverse training data in meta-learning. This method differs from previous models that solely rely on parameters, as it explicitly emphasizes the importance of non-parametric knowledge, aiming to strike a balance between parameterized neural networks and non-parametric knowledge. The model is required to determine which knowledge to access and utilize during inference. Additionally, our multi-view passages fusion network module can effectively and efficiently integrate the retrieved information into low-resource classification task. The extensive experiments demonstrate that RAML significantly outperforms current SOTA low-resource text classification models.
Generalized Few-Shot Intent Detection (GFSID) is challenging and realistic because it needs to categorize both seen and novel intents simultaneously. Previous GFSID methods rely on the episodic learning paradigm, which makes it hard to extend to a generalized setup as they do not explicitly learn the classification of seen categories and the knowledge of seen intents. To address the dilemma, we propose to convert the GFSID task into the class incremental learning paradigm. Specifically, we propose a two-stage learning framework, which sequentially learns the knowledge of different intents in various periods via prompt learning. And then we exploit prototypes for categorizing both seen and novel intents. Furthermore, to achieve the transfer knowledge of intents in different stages, for different scenarios we design two knowledge preservation methods which close to realistic applications. Extensive experiments and detailed analyses on two widely used datasets show that our framework based on the class incremental learning paradigm achieves promising performance.
Citation field learning is to segment a citation string into fields of interest such as author, title, and venue. Extracting such fields from citations is crucial for citation indexing, researcher profile analysis, etc. User-generated resources like academic homepages and Curriculum Vitae, provide rich citation field information. However, extracting fields from these resources is challenging due to inconsistent citation styles, incomplete sentence syntax, and insufficient training data. To address these challenges, we propose a novel algorithm, CIFAL (citation field learning by anchor learning), to boost the citation field learning performance. CIFAL leverages the anchor learning, which is model-agnostic for any Pre-trained Language Model, to help capture citation patterns from the data of different citation styles. The experiments demonstrate that CIFAL outperforms state-of-the-art methods in citation field learning, achieving a 2.83% improvement in field-level F1-scores. Extensive analysis of the results further confirms the effectiveness of CIFAL quantitatively and qualitatively.
Recently, instruction-following Large Language Models (LLMs) , represented by ChatGPT, have exhibited exceptional performance in general Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. However, the unique characteristics of E-commerce data pose significant challenges to general LLMs. An LLM tailored specifically for E-commerce scenarios, possessing robust cross-dataset/task generalization capabilities, is a pressing necessity. To solve this issue, in this work, we proposed the first e-commerce instruction dataset EcomInstruct, with a total of 2.5 million instruction data. EcomInstruct scales up the data size and task diversity by constructing atomic tasks with E-commerce basic data types, such as product information, user reviews. Atomic tasks are defined as intermediate tasks implicitly involved in solving a final task, which we also call Chain-of-Task tasks. We developed EcomGPT with different parameter scales by training the backbone model BLOOMZ with the EcomInstruct. Benefiting from the fundamental semantic understanding capabilities acquired from the Chain-of-Task tasks, EcomGPT exhibits excellent zero-shot generalization capabilities. Extensive experiments and human evaluations demonstrate that EcomGPT outperforms ChatGPT in term of cross-dataset/task generalization on E-commerce tasks.