Multi-objective optimization is a type of decision making problems where multiple conflicting objectives are optimized. We study offline optimization of multi-objective policies from data collected by an existing policy. We propose a pessimistic estimator for the multi-objective policy values that can be easily plugged into existing formulas for hypervolume computation and optimized. The estimator is based on inverse propensity scores (IPS), and improves upon a naive IPS estimator in both theory and experiments. Our analysis is general, and applies beyond our IPS estimators and methods for optimizing them. The pessimistic estimator can be optimized by policy gradients and performs well in all of our experiments.
In the maximum $n$-times coverage problem, we are provided a set of elements, a weight for each element, and a set of overlays where each overlay specifies an element specific coverage of zero or more times. The goal is to select up to $k$ overlays such that the sum of the weights of elements that are covered at least $n$ times is maximized. We also define the min-cost $n$-times coverage problem where the objective is to select the minimum set of overlays such that the sum of the weights of elements that are covered at least $n$ times is at least $\tau$. We show that the $n$-times coverage objective is not submodular, and we present an efficient solution by sequential greedy optimization. We frame the design of a peptide vaccine for COVID-19 as maximum $n$-times coverage using machine learning defined candidate peptide sets, and show that our solution is superior to 29 other published COVID-19 peptide vaccine designs in predicted population coverage and the expected number of peptides displayed by each individual's HLA molecules.
We introduce Information Condensing Active Learning (ICAL), a batch mode model agnostic Active Learning (AL) method targeted at Deep Bayesian Active Learning that focuses on acquiring labels for points which have as much information as possible about the still unacquired points. ICAL uses the Hilbert Schmidt Independence Criterion (HSIC) to measure the strength of the dependency between a candidate batch of points and the unlabeled set. We develop key optimizations that allow us to scale our method to large unlabeled sets. We show significant improvements in terms of model accuracy and negative log likelihood (NLL) on several image datasets compared to state of the art batch mode AL methods for deep learning.
Deep Reinforcement Learning (RL) is proven powerful for decision making in simulated environments. However, training deep RL model is challenging in real world applications such as production-scale health-care or recommender systems because of the expensiveness of interaction and limitation of budget at deployment. One aspect of the data inefficiency comes from the expensive hyper-parameter tuning when optimizing deep neural networks. We propose Adaptive Behavior Policy Sharing (ABPS), a data-efficient training algorithm that allows sharing of experience collected by behavior policy that is adaptively selected from a pool of agents trained with an ensemble of hyper-parameters. We further extend ABPS to evolve hyper-parameters during training by hybridizing ABPS with an adapted version of Population Based Training (ABPS-PBT). We conduct experiments with multiple Atari games with up to 16 hyper-parameter/architecture setups. ABPS achieves superior overall performance, reduced variance on top 25% agents, and equivalent performance on the best agent compared to conventional hyper-parameter tuning with independent training, even though ABPS only requires the same number of environmental interactions as training a single agent. We also show that ABPS-PBT further improves the convergence speed and reduces the variance.
* on Deep Reinforcement Learning workshop at NeurIPS 2019
The inaccuracy of neural network models on inputs that do not stem from the training data distribution is both problematic and at times unrecognized. Model uncertainty estimation can address this issue, where uncertainty estimates are often based on the variation in predictions produced by a diverse ensemble of models applied to the same input. Here we describe Maximize Overall Diversity (MOD), a straightforward approach to improve ensemble-based uncertainty estimates by encouraging larger overall diversity in ensemble predictions across all possible inputs that might be encountered in the future. When applied to various neural network ensembles, MOD significantly improves predictive performance for out-of-distribution test examples without sacrificing in-distribution performance on 38 Protein-DNA binding regression datasets, 9 UCI datasets, and the IMDB-Wiki image dataset. Across many Bayesian optimization tasks, the performance of UCB acquisition is also greatly improved by leveraging MOD uncertainty estimates.