First-shot (FS) unsupervised anomalous sound detection (ASD) is a brand-new task introduced in DCASE 2023 Challenge Task 2, where the anomalous sounds for the target machine types are unseen in training. Existing methods often rely on the availability of normal and abnormal sound data from the target machines. However, due to the lack of anomalous sound data for the target machine types, it becomes challenging when adapting the existing ASD methods to the first-shot task. In this paper, we propose a new framework for the first-shot unsupervised ASD, where metadata-assisted audio generation is used to estimate unknown anomalies, by utilising the available machine information (i.e., metadata and sound data) to fine-tune a text-to-audio generation model for generating the anomalous sounds that contain unique acoustic characteristics accounting for each different machine types. We then use the method of Time-Weighted Frequency domain audio Representation with Gaussian Mixture Model (TWFR-GMM) as the backbone to achieve the first-shot unsupervised ASD. Our proposed FS-TWFR-GMM method achieves competitive performance amongst top systems in DCASE 2023 Challenge Task 2, while requiring only 1% model parameters for detection, as validated in our experiments.
Unsupervised anomalous sound detection (ASD) aims to detect unknown anomalous sounds of devices when only normal sound data is available. The autoencoder (AE) and self-supervised learning based methods are two mainstream methods. However, the AE-based methods could be limited as the feature learned from normal sounds can also fit with anomalous sounds, reducing the ability of the model in detecting anomalies from sound. The self-supervised methods are not always stable and perform differently, even for machines of the same type. In addition, the anomalous sound may be short-lived, making it even harder to distinguish from normal sound. This paper proposes an ID constrained Transformer-based autoencoder (IDC-TransAE) architecture with weighted anomaly score computation for unsupervised ASD. Machine ID is employed to constrain the latent space of the Transformer-based autoencoder (TransAE) by introducing a simple ID classifier to learn the difference in the distribution for the same machine type and enhance the ability of the model in distinguishing anomalous sound. Moreover, weighted anomaly score computation is introduced to highlight the anomaly scores of anomalous events that only appear for a short time. Experiments performed on DCASE 2020 Challenge Task2 development dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our proposed method.
* Accepted by EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing
Data-driven approaches hold promise for audio captioning. However, the development of audio captioning methods can be biased due to the limited availability and quality of text-audio data. This paper proposes a SynthAC framework, which leverages recent advances in audio generative models and commonly available text corpus to create synthetic text-audio pairs, thereby enhancing text-audio representation. Specifically, the text-to-audio generation model, i.e., AudioLDM, is used to generate synthetic audio signals with captions from an image captioning dataset. Our SynthAC expands the availability of well-annotated captions from the text-vision domain to audio captioning, thus enhancing text-audio representation by learning relations within synthetic text-audio pairs. Experiments demonstrate that our SynthAC framework can benefit audio captioning models by incorporating well-annotated text corpus from the text-vision domain, offering a promising solution to the challenge caused by data scarcity. Furthermore, SynthAC can be easily adapted to various state-of-the-art methods, leading to substantial performance improvements.
Different machines can exhibit diverse frequency patterns in their emitted sound. This feature has been recently explored in anomaly sound detection and reached state-of-the-art performance. However, existing methods rely on the manual or empirical determination of the frequency filter by observing the effective frequency range in the training data, which may be impractical for general application. This paper proposes an anomalous sound detection method using self-attention-based frequency pattern analysis and spectral-temporal information fusion. Our experiments demonstrate that the self-attention module automatically and adaptively analyses the effective frequencies of a machine sound and enhances that information in the spectral feature representation. With spectral-temporal information fusion, the obtained audio feature eventually improves the anomaly detection performance on the DCASE 2020 Challenge Task 2 dataset.
State-of-the-art audio captioning methods typically use the encoder-decoder structure with pretrained audio neural networks (PANNs) as encoders for feature extraction. However, the convolution operation used in PANNs is limited in capturing the long-time dependencies within an audio signal, thereby leading to potential performance degradation in audio captioning. This letter presents a novel method using graph attention (GraphAC) for encoder-decoder based audio captioning. In the encoder, a graph attention module is introduced after the PANNs to learn contextual association (i.e. the dependency among the audio features over different time frames) through an adjacency graph, and a top-k mask is used to mitigate the interference from noisy nodes. The learnt contextual association leads to a more effective feature representation with feature node aggregation. As a result, the decoder can predict important semantic information about the acoustic scene and events based on the contextual associations learned from the audio signal. Experimental results show that GraphAC outperforms the state-of-the-art methods with PANNs as the encoders, thanks to the incorporation of the graph attention module into the encoder for capturing the long-time dependencies within the audio signal. The source code is available at https://github.com/LittleFlyingSheep/GraphAC.
Existing contrastive learning methods for anomalous sound detection refine the audio representation of each audio sample by using the contrast between the samples' augmentations (e.g., with time or frequency masking). However, they might be biased by the augmented data, due to the lack of physical properties of machine sound, thereby limiting the detection performance. This paper uses contrastive learning to refine audio representations for each machine ID, rather than for each audio sample. The proposed two-stage method uses contrastive learning to pretrain the audio representation model by incorporating machine ID and a self-supervised ID classifier to fine-tune the learnt model, while enhancing the relation between audio features from the same ID. Experiments show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods using contrastive learning or self-supervised classification in overall anomaly detection performance and stability on DCASE 2020 Challenge Task2 dataset.
* To appear in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and
Signal Processing (ICASSP 2023)
Automated audio captioning (AAC) aims to describe audio data with captions using natural language. Most existing AAC methods adopt an encoder-decoder structure, where the attention based mechanism is a popular choice in the decoder (e.g., Transformer decoder) for predicting captions from audio features. Such attention based decoders can capture the global information from the audio features, however, their ability in extracting local information can be limited, which may lead to degraded quality in the generated captions. In this paper, we present an AAC method with an attention-free decoder, where an encoder based on PANNs is employed for audio feature extraction, and the attention-free decoder is designed to introduce local information. The proposed method enables the effective use of both global and local information from audio signals. Experiments show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods with the standard attention based decoder in Task 6 of the DCASE 2021 Challenge.
Speech enhancement aims to obtain speech signals with high intelligibility and quality from noisy speech. Recent work has demonstrated the excellent performance of time-domain deep learning methods, such as Conv-TasNet. However, these methods can be degraded by the arbitrary scales of the waveform induced by the scale-invariant signal-to-noise ratio (SI-SNR) loss. This paper proposes a new framework called Time-domain Speech Enhancement Generative Adversarial Network (TSEGAN), which is an extension of the generative adversarial network (GAN) in time-domain with metric evaluation to mitigate the scaling problem, and provide model training stability, thus achieving performance improvement. In addition, we provide a new method based on objective function mapping for the theoretical analysis of the performance of Metric GAN, and explain why it is better than the Wasserstein GAN. Experiments conducted demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method, and illustrate the advantage of Metric GAN.