First-shot (FS) unsupervised anomalous sound detection (ASD) is a brand-new task introduced in DCASE 2023 Challenge Task 2, where the anomalous sounds for the target machine types are unseen in training. Existing methods often rely on the availability of normal and abnormal sound data from the target machines. However, due to the lack of anomalous sound data for the target machine types, it becomes challenging when adapting the existing ASD methods to the first-shot task. In this paper, we propose a new framework for the first-shot unsupervised ASD, where metadata-assisted audio generation is used to estimate unknown anomalies, by utilising the available machine information (i.e., metadata and sound data) to fine-tune a text-to-audio generation model for generating the anomalous sounds that contain unique acoustic characteristics accounting for each different machine types. We then use the method of Time-Weighted Frequency domain audio Representation with Gaussian Mixture Model (TWFR-GMM) as the backbone to achieve the first-shot unsupervised ASD. Our proposed FS-TWFR-GMM method achieves competitive performance amongst top systems in DCASE 2023 Challenge Task 2, while requiring only 1% model parameters for detection, as validated in our experiments.
Unsupervised anomalous sound detection (ASD) aims to detect unknown anomalous sounds of devices when only normal sound data is available. The autoencoder (AE) and self-supervised learning based methods are two mainstream methods. However, the AE-based methods could be limited as the feature learned from normal sounds can also fit with anomalous sounds, reducing the ability of the model in detecting anomalies from sound. The self-supervised methods are not always stable and perform differently, even for machines of the same type. In addition, the anomalous sound may be short-lived, making it even harder to distinguish from normal sound. This paper proposes an ID constrained Transformer-based autoencoder (IDC-TransAE) architecture with weighted anomaly score computation for unsupervised ASD. Machine ID is employed to constrain the latent space of the Transformer-based autoencoder (TransAE) by introducing a simple ID classifier to learn the difference in the distribution for the same machine type and enhance the ability of the model in distinguishing anomalous sound. Moreover, weighted anomaly score computation is introduced to highlight the anomaly scores of anomalous events that only appear for a short time. Experiments performed on DCASE 2020 Challenge Task2 development dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our proposed method.
* Accepted by EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing
Data-driven approaches hold promise for audio captioning. However, the development of audio captioning methods can be biased due to the limited availability and quality of text-audio data. This paper proposes a SynthAC framework, which leverages recent advances in audio generative models and commonly available text corpus to create synthetic text-audio pairs, thereby enhancing text-audio representation. Specifically, the text-to-audio generation model, i.e., AudioLDM, is used to generate synthetic audio signals with captions from an image captioning dataset. Our SynthAC expands the availability of well-annotated captions from the text-vision domain to audio captioning, thus enhancing text-audio representation by learning relations within synthetic text-audio pairs. Experiments demonstrate that our SynthAC framework can benefit audio captioning models by incorporating well-annotated text corpus from the text-vision domain, offering a promising solution to the challenge caused by data scarcity. Furthermore, SynthAC can be easily adapted to various state-of-the-art methods, leading to substantial performance improvements.
Self-supervised learning methods have achieved promising performance for anomalous sound detection (ASD) under domain shift, where the type of domain shift is considered in feature learning by incorporating section IDs. However, the attributes accompanying audio files under each section, such as machine operating conditions and noise types, have not been considered, although they are also crucial for characterizing domain shifts. In this paper, we present a hierarchical metadata information constrained self-supervised (HMIC) ASD method, where the hierarchical relation between section IDs and attributes is constructed, and used as constraints to obtain finer feature representation. In addition, we propose an attribute-group-center (AGC)-based method for calculating the anomaly score under the domain shift condition. Experiments are performed to demonstrate its improved performance over the state-of-the-art self-supervised methods in DCASE 2022 challenge Task 2.
Different machines can exhibit diverse frequency patterns in their emitted sound. This feature has been recently explored in anomaly sound detection and reached state-of-the-art performance. However, existing methods rely on the manual or empirical determination of the frequency filter by observing the effective frequency range in the training data, which may be impractical for general application. This paper proposes an anomalous sound detection method using self-attention-based frequency pattern analysis and spectral-temporal information fusion. Our experiments demonstrate that the self-attention module automatically and adaptively analyses the effective frequencies of a machine sound and enhances that information in the spectral feature representation. With spectral-temporal information fusion, the obtained audio feature eventually improves the anomaly detection performance on the DCASE 2020 Challenge Task 2 dataset.
Although deep learning is the mainstream method in unsupervised anomalous sound detection, Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) with statistical audio frequency representation as input can achieve comparable results with much lower model complexity and fewer parameters. Existing statistical frequency representations, e.g, the log-Mel spectrogram's average or maximum over time, do not always work well for different machines. This paper presents Time-Weighted Frequency Domain Representation (TWFR) with the GMM method (TWFR-GMM) for anomalous sound detection. The TWFR is a generalized statistical frequency domain representation that can adapt to different machine types, using the global weighted ranking pooling over time-domain. This allows GMM estimator to recognize anomalies, even under domain-shift conditions, as visualized with a Mahalanobis distance-based metric. Experiments on DCASE 2022 Challenge Task2 dataset show that our method has better detection performance than recent deep learning methods. TWFR-GMM is the core of our submission that achieved the 3rd place in DCASE 2022 Challenge Task2.
State-of-the-art audio captioning methods typically use the encoder-decoder structure with pretrained audio neural networks (PANNs) as encoders for feature extraction. However, the convolution operation used in PANNs is limited in capturing the long-time dependencies within an audio signal, thereby leading to potential performance degradation in audio captioning. This letter presents a novel method using graph attention (GraphAC) for encoder-decoder based audio captioning. In the encoder, a graph attention module is introduced after the PANNs to learn contextual association (i.e. the dependency among the audio features over different time frames) through an adjacency graph, and a top-k mask is used to mitigate the interference from noisy nodes. The learnt contextual association leads to a more effective feature representation with feature node aggregation. As a result, the decoder can predict important semantic information about the acoustic scene and events based on the contextual associations learned from the audio signal. Experimental results show that GraphAC outperforms the state-of-the-art methods with PANNs as the encoders, thanks to the incorporation of the graph attention module into the encoder for capturing the long-time dependencies within the audio signal. The source code is available at https://github.com/LittleFlyingSheep/GraphAC.
Existing contrastive learning methods for anomalous sound detection refine the audio representation of each audio sample by using the contrast between the samples' augmentations (e.g., with time or frequency masking). However, they might be biased by the augmented data, due to the lack of physical properties of machine sound, thereby limiting the detection performance. This paper uses contrastive learning to refine audio representations for each machine ID, rather than for each audio sample. The proposed two-stage method uses contrastive learning to pretrain the audio representation model by incorporating machine ID and a self-supervised ID classifier to fine-tune the learnt model, while enhancing the relation between audio features from the same ID. Experiments show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods using contrastive learning or self-supervised classification in overall anomaly detection performance and stability on DCASE 2020 Challenge Task2 dataset.
* To appear in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and
Signal Processing (ICASSP 2023)
Unsupervised anomalous sound detection aims to detect unknown abnormal sounds of machines from normal sounds. However, the state-of-the-art approaches are not always stable and perform dramatically differently even for machines of the same type, making it impractical for general applications. This paper proposes a spectral-temporal fusion based self-supervised method to model the feature of the normal sound, which improves the stability and performance consistency in detection of anomalous sounds from individual machines, even of the same type. Experiments on the DCASE 2020 Challenge Task 2 dataset show that the proposed method achieved 81.39%, 83.48%, 98.22% and 98.83% in terms of the minimum AUC (worst-case detection performance amongst individuals) in four types of real machines (fan, pump, slider and valve), respectively, giving 31.79%, 17.78%, 10.42% and 21.13% improvement compared to the state-of-the-art method, i.e., Glow_Aff. Moreover, the proposed method has improved AUC (average performance of individuals) for all the types of machines in the dataset.