Linear State Space Models (SSMs) have demonstrated strong performance in a variety of sequence modeling tasks due to their efficient encoding of the recurrent structure. However, in more comprehensive tasks like language modeling and machine translation, self-attention-based models still outperform SSMs. Hybrid models employing both SSM and self-attention generally show promising performance, but current approaches apply attention modules statically and uniformly to all elements in the input sequences, leading to sub-optimal quality-efficiency trade-offs. In this work, we introduce Sparse Modular Activation (SMA), a general mechanism enabling neural networks to sparsely and dynamically activate sub-modules for sequence elements in a differentiable manner. Through allowing each element to skip non-activated sub-modules, SMA reduces computation and memory consumption at both training and inference stages of sequence modeling. As a specific instantiation of SMA, we design a novel neural architecture, SeqBoat, which employs SMA to sparsely activate a Gated Attention Unit (GAU) based on the state representations learned from an SSM. By constraining the GAU to only conduct local attention on the activated inputs, SeqBoat can achieve linear inference complexity with theoretically infinite attention span, and provide substantially better quality-efficiency trade-off than the chunking-based models. With experiments on a wide range of tasks, including language modeling, speech classification and long-range arena, SeqBoat brings new state-of-the-art results among hybrid models with linear complexity and reveals the amount of attention needed for each task through the learned sparse activation patterns.
Reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) has emerged as a reliable approach to aligning large language models (LLMs) to human preferences. Among the plethora of RLHF techniques, proximal policy optimization (PPO) is of the most widely used methods. Despite its popularity, however, PPO may suffer from mode collapse, instability, and poor sample efficiency. We show that these issues can be alleviated by a novel algorithm that we refer to as Advantage-Induced Policy Alignment (APA), which leverages a squared error loss function based on the estimated advantages. We demonstrate empirically that APA consistently outperforms PPO in language tasks by a large margin, when a separate reward model is employed as the evaluator. In addition, compared with PPO, APA offers a more stable form of control over the deviation from the model's initial policy, ensuring that the model improves its performance without collapsing to deterministic output. In addition to empirical results, we also provide a theoretical justification supporting the design of our loss function.
Large language models (LLMs) can use in-context demonstrations to improve performance on zero-shot tasks. However, selecting the best in-context examples is challenging because model performance can vary widely depending on the selected examples. We present a cross-entropy difference (CED) method for selecting in-context demonstrations. Our method is based on the observation that the effectiveness of in-context demonstrations negatively correlates with the perplexity of the test example by a language model that was finetuned on that demonstration. We utilize parameter efficient finetuning to train small models on training data that are used for computing the cross-entropy difference between a test example and every candidate in-context demonstration. This metric is used to rank and select in-context demonstrations independently for each test input. We evaluate our method on a mix-domain dataset that combines 8 benchmarks, representing 4 text generation tasks, showing that CED for in-context demonstration selection can improve performance for a variety of LLMs.
Strategies such as chain-of-thought prompting improve the performance of large language models (LLMs) on complex reasoning tasks by decomposing input examples into intermediate steps. However, it remains unclear how to apply such methods to reason over long input documents, in which both the decomposition and the output of each intermediate step are non-trivial to obtain. In this work, we propose PEARL, a prompting framework to improve reasoning over long documents, which consists of three stages: action mining, plan formulation, and plan execution. More specifically, given a question about a long document, PEARL decomposes the question into a sequence of actions (e.g., SUMMARIZE, FIND_EVENT, FIND_RELATION) and then executes them over the document to obtain the answer. Each stage of PEARL is implemented via zero-shot or few-shot prompting of LLMs (in our work, GPT-4) with minimal human input. We evaluate PEARL on a challenging subset of the QuALITY dataset, which contains questions that require complex reasoning over long narrative texts. PEARL outperforms zero-shot and chain-of-thought prompting on this dataset, and ablation experiments show that each stage of PEARL is critical to its performance. Overall, PEARL is a first step towards leveraging LLMs to reason over long documents.
Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) requires comprehensive understanding and generation capabilities for a variety of tasks spanning different modalities and functionalities. Integrative AI is one important direction to approach AGI, through combining multiple models to tackle complex multimodal tasks. However, there is a lack of a flexible and composable platform to facilitate efficient and effective model composition and coordination. In this paper, we propose the i-Code Studio, a configurable and composable framework for Integrative AI. The i-Code Studio orchestrates multiple pre-trained models in a finetuning-free fashion to conduct complex multimodal tasks. Instead of simple model composition, the i-Code Studio provides an integrative, flexible, and composable setting for developers to quickly and easily compose cutting-edge services and technologies tailored to their specific requirements. The i-Code Studio achieves impressive results on a variety of zero-shot multimodal tasks, such as video-to-text retrieval, speech-to-speech translation, and visual question answering. We also demonstrate how to quickly build a multimodal agent based on the i-Code Studio that can communicate and personalize for users.
Query-focused summarization (QFS) aims to extract or generate a summary of an input document that directly answers or is relevant to a given query. The lack of large-scale datasets in the form of documents, queries, and summaries has hindered model development in this area. In contrast, multiple large-scale high-quality datasets for generic summarization exist. We hypothesize that there is a hidden query for each summary sentence in a generic summarization annotation, and we utilize a large-scale pretrained language model to recover it. In this way, we convert four generic summarization benchmarks into a new QFS benchmark dataset, LMGQS, which consists of over 1 million document-query-summary samples. We thoroughly investigate the properties of our proposed dataset and establish baselines with state-of-the-art summarization models. By fine-tuning a language model on LMGQS, we achieve state-of-the-art zero-shot and supervised performance on multiple existing QFS benchmarks, demonstrating the high quality and diversity of LMGQS.
While large models such as GPT-3 demonstrate exceptional performance in zeroshot and fewshot summarization tasks, their extensive serving and fine-tuning costs hinder their utilization in various applications. Conversely, previous studies have found that although automatic metrics tend to favor smaller fine-tuned models, the quality of the summaries they generate is inferior to that of larger models like GPT-3 when assessed by human evaluators. To address this issue, we propose InheritSumm, a versatile and compact summarization model derived from GPT-3.5 through distillation. InheritSumm not only exhibits comparable zeroshot and fewshot summarization capabilities to GPT-3.5 but is also sufficiently compact for fine-tuning purposes. Experimental results demonstrate that InheritSumm achieves similar or superior performance to GPT-3.5 in zeroshot and fewshot settings. Furthermore, it outperforms the previously established best small models in both prefix-tuning and full-data fine-tuning scenarios.
The convergence of text, visual, and audio data is a key step towards human-like artificial intelligence, however the current Vision-Language-Speech landscape is dominated by encoder-only models which lack generative abilities. We propose closing this gap with i-Code V2, the first model capable of generating natural language from any combination of Vision, Language, and Speech data. i-Code V2 is an integrative system that leverages state-of-the-art single-modality encoders, combining their outputs with a new modality-fusing encoder in order to flexibly project combinations of modalities into a shared representational space. Next, language tokens are generated from these representations via an autoregressive decoder. The whole framework is pretrained end-to-end on a large collection of dual- and single-modality datasets using a novel text completion objective that can be generalized across arbitrary combinations of modalities. i-Code V2 matches or outperforms state-of-the-art single- and dual-modality baselines on 7 multimodal tasks, demonstrating the power of generative multimodal pretraining across a diversity of tasks and signals.
We present Composable Diffusion (CoDi), a novel generative model capable of generating any combination of output modalities, such as language, image, video, or audio, from any combination of input modalities. Unlike existing generative AI systems, CoDi can generate multiple modalities in parallel and its input is not limited to a subset of modalities like text or image. Despite the absence of training datasets for many combinations of modalities, we propose to align modalities in both the input and output space. This allows CoDi to freely condition on any input combination and generate any group of modalities, even if they are not present in the training data. CoDi employs a novel composable generation strategy which involves building a shared multimodal space by bridging alignment in the diffusion process, enabling the synchronized generation of intertwined modalities, such as temporally aligned video and audio. Highly customizable and flexible, CoDi achieves strong joint-modality generation quality, and outperforms or is on par with the unimodal state-of-the-art for single-modality synthesis. The project page with demonstrations and code is at https://codi-gen.github.io